Abels konvergensteorem

Abels konvergensteorem i matematikk relaterer grenseverdien for en potensrekke til summen av koeffisientene. Teoremet er oppkalt etter den norske matematikeren Niels Henrik Abel.

La a = {ai: i ≥ 0} være en vilkårlig følge av reelle eller komplekse tall, og la

være potensrekken med koeffisientene a. Anta at rekken











i


=


0











a



i







{\displaystyle \sum _{i=0}^{\infty }a_{i}\!}


konvergerer. Da

I det spesielle tilfellet da alle koeffisientene ai er reelle og ai ≥ 0 for alle i, vil uttrykket overfor





(






)




{\displaystyle (*)}


gjelde også når rekken











i


=


0











a



i







{\displaystyle \sum _{i=0}^{\infty }a_{i}\!}


ikke konvergerer. I så tilfelle er begge sidene av uttrykket lik +∞.

I en mer generell versjon av dette teoremet gjelder følgende: hvis r er et tilfeldig reelt tall ulik null og rekken











i


=


0











a



i





r



i







{\displaystyle \sum _{i=0}^{\infty }a_{i}r^{i}\!}


konvergerer for dette tallet, da følger det at

forutsatt at vi tolker grensen for dette uttrykket som en énsidig grense, fra venstre hvis r er positiv og fra høyre hvis r er negativ.

La





f


(


x


)


=








n






1







(






1



)



n


+


1





x



n





n




=


log






(


1


+


x


)


.




{\displaystyle f(x)=\sum _{n\geq 1}{\frac {(-1)^{n+1}x^{n}}{n}}=\log(1+x).}


Da











n






1







(






1



)



n


+


1





n






{\displaystyle \sum _{n\geq 1}{\frac {(-1)^{n+1}}{n}}}


konvergerer (av konvergenskriteriet for alternerende rekker,) følger

La





g


(


x


)


=








n






0







(






1



)



n





x



2


n


+


1






2


n


+


1





=


arctan






(


x


)


.




{\displaystyle g(x)=\sum _{n\geq 0}{\frac {(-1)^{n}x^{2n+1}}{2n+1}}=\arctan(x).}


Igjen følger det av konvergenskriteriet for alternerende rekker, at











n






0







(






1



)



n






2


n


+


1







{\displaystyle \sum _{n\geq 0}{\frac {(-1)^{n}}{2n+1}}}


konvergerer, og at

Anvendelsen av Abels teorem er knyttet til at den muliggjør å finne grensen til en potensrekke mens dets argument (dvs. z) nærmer seg 1 nedenfra, selv i tilfeller der konvergens radius R, for potensrekke er lik 1 og man ikke kan fastslå om grensen burde være endelig eller ikke. Se for eksempel binomialrekkene.

Ga(z) kalles den genererende funksjon for sekvensen a. Abels teorem er ofte nyttig ved generering av funksjoner med sekvenser av reelle ikke-negative verdier, som sannsynlighetsgenererende funksjoner. Den er særlig nyttig i teorien om Galton-Watson prosesser.

Konverse teoremer til et som Abels kalles Tauberiske teoremer: det finnes ingen nøyaktig konvers, kun resultater som betinger en hypotese. Fagområdet divergerende rekker og deres summasjonsmetoder inneholder mange teoremer av abelsk type og av tauberisk type.

C. Ernst Harth

Cary Ernst Harth (born February 2, 1970) is a Canadian actor.

Harth was born in Galt, Ontario, Canada. He got his first taste of acting in grade school when the drama club cast the school’s largest child to play Santa in their Christmas pageant. Harth was just a kindergartner at the time. Involved in community theatre and improvisational comedy during high school, it wasn’t until he relocated to Vancouver in 1989 that he seriously pursued acting full-time. Prior to landing his first professional gig in a TV commercial for a food chain, Harth toured the semi-pro wrestling circuit in Canada’s small towns and provinces as The Bible Thumper, adorned in black robes with a cross shaved on his head.

He made his professional acting debut in Green Dolphin Beat, a Spelling telefilm for Fox. He has since guest-starred in the famous b/w episode of The X-Files (under creator Chris Carter’s direction), been Saved on TNT, co-starred with Carmen Electra as her bodyguard, Eightball, in MTV’s Monster Island, wrestled Beau Bridges in Hallmark’s Voyage of the Unicorn and appeared in countless other television series such as Millennium, Harsh Realm, The Dead Zone and The Outer Limits.

On the big screen, Harth’s credits include portraying Lowell Lee Andrews in the multi-awarded Capote (with Philip Seymour Hoffman), racing through downtown Vancouver with Ice Cube in Are We There Yet?, chasing Scooby and Shaggy as Miner 49er in Scooby Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed, Thir13en Ghosts (opposite Matthew Lillard, also in Scooby Doo 2), Say It Isn’t So (opposite Chris Klein and Orlando Jones), Dreamcatcher (opposite Thomas Jane and directed by Lawrence Kasdan), Camouflage (opposite Leslie Nielsen, directed by James Keach), Dudley Do-Right (opposite Brendan Fraser and Sarah Jessica Parker), Excess Baggage (his feature film debut opposite Alicia Silverstone and Christopher Walken), Smokin‘ Aces 2: Assassins‘ Ball and Dead Rising: Watchtower.

Gnosis (album)

Gnosis is the fourth album of the British progressive rock band, Gnidrolog. The album’s title, Gnosis, means divine or spiritual knowledge and understanding. It is their third studio album and the first to be recorded in 27 years. The album was mostly recorded at Select Sound Studios, Cairns, Australia, where it was engineered and produced by Nigel Pegrum. „Repent Harlequin“, „Two Helens“ and the title track were all recorded at Music City Studios, London, engineered by Joe Suarez and produced by Nessa Glen, in courtesy of Sarastro Music. The album was mostly published by Kempyre Music, except „Two Helens“, which was published by Sarastro Music. Chris Copping of Procol Harum played his Hammond B3 Organ for a couple of tracks, which were recorded in Woodstock Studios, Melbourne and engineered by Tim Dudfield. Post production is credited to David J Burrows and Stewart Goldring. The album was mastered by David J Burrows at Disques rue Bis. The album is noted to be eclectic not only for its transcontinental recording but also for the use of traditional instruments such as the Australian aboriginal, didgeridoos. The album marks the band’s comeback which has also prompted the release of the Live 1972 album. The album was essentially a cooperation between the 1970s old Gnidrolog members to release the Goldring brothers‘ original material with the addition of Rick Kemp of Steeleye Span and Nessa Glen.

The album cover contains a pyramid with the title in it and in its bottom right hand corner, appear two words, „prospice“ and „respice“.

With

Karl Hirschbold

Karl Hirschbold (* 14. September 1908; † Oktober 1994 in Wien) war ein österreichischer Lehrer, Buchautor und Radiojournalist.

Hirschbold besuchte zunächst in Wien fünf Jahre lang die Volksschule und anschließend drei Jahre lang die Bürgerschule. Als Schüler selbiger konnte er sich zur Aufnahme in die Bundeslehranstalt in Wien, einer Institution zur Ausbildung von Volksschullehrern, qualifizieren. Der Abschluss an der Bundeslehreranstalt bildete eine Reifeprüfung, die der österreichischen Matura bzw. dem deutschen Abitur ähnlich ist, und die Hirschbold 1927 ablegte. Danach belegte er Lehrerbildungskurse am Pädagogischen Institut der Stadt Wien, und anschließend schrieb er sich an der Universität Wien für das Studium der Germanistik und Anglistik ein, das er mit dem sogenannte Absolutorium abschloss, einem ungefähren Äquivalent zum Ersten Staatsexamen. 1933 trat Hirschbold in den Schuldienst ein, unterrichtete zunächst an Volksschulen, später dann in erster Linie Englisch an Hauptschulen. Über seine Tätigkeit in der Zeit vom sogenannten Anschluss Österreichs bis zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs ist bisher weiter nichts bekannt. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg fiel Hirschbold durch seine hervorragenden Leistungen in der Gestaltung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts auf und wurde zum Fachberater für Englisch im Bereich des Stadtschulrats Wien bestellt. Dort arbeitete Hirschbold, bis er sich 1970 freiwillig in den Ruhestand begab. Er ist Autor zahlreicher Lehrbücher für den Englischunterricht. Daneben gestaltete Hirschbold auch über 50 Schulfunksendungen für den Deutschunterricht.

Hirschbold verstarb 1994 und ist am Baumgartner Friedhof (Gruppe DA, Nummer 107) in Wien begraben.

Der breiten Öffentlichkeit Österreichs ist Hirschbold aber vor allem als Sprachpfleger bekannt, und zwar aus Rundfunksendungen wie Das richtige Wort am richtigen Ort, Blüten aus dem Blätterwald, und Achtung! Sprachpolizei!, sowie durch zahlreiche seiner Publikationen zum Thema.

Hirschbolds Sendung „Achtung Sprachpolizei!“ gehörte zu den wenigen Programmen, denen es gelang, aufgrund ihrer Popularität die Schwelle der Rundfunkreform von der RAVAG zum ORF 1967 erfolgreich zu überwinden. Von 1952 bis 1978 wurden insgesamt 475 Folgen produziert, in denen auf humoristische, aber leicht autoritäre Art „schludriger“ und inkorrekter Umgang mit der deutschen Sprache kritisiert wurde (beispielsweise der tendenziell zunehmende Wegfall des „Genitiv-S“, Verstöße gegen die Regel „wenn ist würdelos“, falsch bezogene Relativsätze). Zur Beliebtheit der Sendung trug auch die schwungvolle Kennmelodie bei, sowie der selbstironisch gefärbte Text (Zitat: „Streng vermerkt der Sprachpolizist, was gegen die Gesetze der Grammatik ist…doch dringt einmal ein Schuss an unser Ohr, dann ist es nur ein Schuss…Humor“). Aufgrund des Erfolgs der Sendung war Hirschbold um 1960 auch als Sachbuchautor tätig, ab 1977 schrieb er für die Zeitung Die Presse die Kolumne Pirschgänge im Sprachrevier, von der eine Sammlung in Buchform erschien.

Karl Hirschbold, war auch Ehrenmitglied im Verein Muttersprache und dort sprachpflegerisch tätig.

Für seine Leistungen wurde Hirschbold mehrfach ausgezeichnet:

Stephanie Beacham

Stephanie Beacham (born 28 February 1947) is an English television, radio, film and theatre actress. She is known for her television roles in the BBC drama Tenko (1981–82), the ITV drama Connie (1985), and for playing Sable Colby in the ABC soap operas The Colbys (1985–87) and Dynasty (1988–89). Her film appearances include Dracula A.D. 1972, (1972), Schizo (1976) and Troop Beverly Hills (1989).

Beacham began appearing on British television in 1967 and made her big screen debut in the 1970 film The Games, before starring opposite Marlon Brando in the 1971 film The Nightcomers. She was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her role in the NBC sitcom Sister Kate (1989–90). Her other television roles include Phyllida Oswyn in the ITV drama Bad Girls (2003–06), Martha Fraser in the ITV soap Coronation Street (2009), and Lorraine in the Sky 1 sitcom Trollied (2012). On stage, she starred as Maria Callas in a 2010 UK touring production of the play Master Class.

Beacham, one of four siblings, was born in Barnet, Hertfordshire, England, the daughter of Joan, a housewife, and a father who was an insurance executive and the managing director of the Grosvenor estate. She attended a Catholic girls‘ school (although she was not brought up as a Catholic), Queen Elizabeth’s Girls‘ Grammar School and later travelled to Boulogne-Billancourt in Paris, France to study mime with Étienne Decroux, before attending Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London.

Her initial goal was to teach dance movement to deaf children, but she began a career in modelling and then began acting in television. Her first screen role was in the BBC series The Queen’s Traitor in 1967, in which she played Mary, Queen of Scots. During an interview, thinking Barnet sounded uninteresting, she told a reporter from the Northern Echo she was born in Casablanca, where her favourite Bogart/Bergman film was set.

After many further guest appearances in television series such as The Saint, Callan, and UFO, Beacham’s first film roles were in The Games directed by Michael Winner, and Tam Lin directed by Roddy McDowall, both released in 1970. She would work with Winner again in 1971’s The Nightcomers, in which she starred opposite Marlon Brando. Beacham appeared nude in one scene, during the filming of which Brando wore Y-fronts and wellington boots under the bed clothes to ensure Winner did not film anything lower than was necessary. Horror would be a genre that Beacham appeared in often during this period, and she was subsequently cast as Jessica Van Helsing in Hammer’s Dracula A.D. 1972 alongside Peter Cushing.

Beacham continued to appear in film, television and on stage. Her next role was as a repertory player with the Nottingham Playhouse, where she played several lead and feature roles, including the role of Nora in the Henrik Ibsen play A Doll’s House. In 1973, she played Georgina Layton in Thames Television’s daytime drama Marked Personal. The same year, she made an Italian film, Si può essere più bastardi dell’ispettore Cliff? The film was released in the US in 1977 as Mafia Junction and in the UK as Blue Movie Blackmail. It was later released on home video, now retitled as Super Bitch as the producers of the film attempted to capitalise on the success of the Joan Collins film The Bitch. Beacham also continued to work in horror films, including And Now the Screaming Starts (1973), House of Mortal Sin (1975), Schizo (1976) and Inseminoid (1981) – a film she admits taking for the fee.

From 1981–82, Beacham featured as a member of the ensemble cast of the BBC series Tenko, about a group of women prisoners of war held captive by the Japanese after their invasion of Singapore in 1942. Following this, she continued working in theatre and television before landing the lead role in the 13-part ITV drama series Connie (1985). Her roles in Tenko and Connie helped to springboard her into one of her most well-remembered roles, that of the devious matriarch Sable Colby on the television series The Colbys (1985–87). The Colbys was a spin-off of the opulent prime-time soap Dynasty which had been the highest rating programme in the USA that year. Beacham was cast opposite Charlton Heston as the tent-pole couple of the new show. The Colbys never experienced the success of its parent show and was cancelled after two seasons, though in 1988, Beacham was invited to reprise the role of Sable on Dynasty, playing opposite Joan Collins in a season-long „battle of the bitches“ scenario.

After Dynasty was cancelled in 1989, Beacham landed the lead role in the children’s fantasy film The Wolves of Willoughby Chase, playing an evil governess. She was then cast in the US sitcom Sister Kate, taking the lead role as a nun taking care of children in an orphanage. The series lasted for one season and was cancelled in 1990, though she earned a Golden Globe nomination for the role. She then returned to Britain to play Mrs. Peacock in an ITV game show version of the board game Cluedo (1990). Reuniting with Dynasty producer Aaron Spelling, Beacham also had a recurring guest role in the popular teen drama Beverly Hills, 90210, playing Iris McKay, the estranged mother of Luke Perry’s character Dylan. Beacham appeared in seven different television series produced by Spelling, including Dynasty, The Colbys, The Love Boat, Beverly Hills, 90210, Burke’s Law, Hart to Hart, and Charmed. In 1993, Beacham signed on to play Dr. Kristin Westphalen in the NBC science fiction series seaQuest DSV, produced by Steven Spielberg. Her character was the chief oceanographer and medical doctor for the submarine seaQuest, however Beacham left the programme after its first season. Throughout the 1990s, she continued to make guest appearances on television programmes, working in both the UK and the US. In 1996, she starred in the BBC drama No Bananas which was set during the war years.

In 2003, Beacham returned to the UK to take a role in the ITV prison drama Bad Girls. She played inmate Phyllida „Phyl“ Oswyn for four years, partnered with Beverly „Bev“ Tull (played by Amanda Barrie) as the „Costa Cons“. She remained with the series to the end in 2006. She also appeared in the 2006 movie Love and Other Disasters. She returned to stage work and toured the UK in 2007 as a lead in the Noël Coward play Hay Fever. Later that year, she competed in the 2007 series of the BBC’s Strictly Come Dancing with professional partner Vincent Simone, though she was eliminated early in the competition (the second of fourteen celebrities) on 14 October 2007.

On 27 November 2008, it was announced that Beacham had joined the cast of ITV’s Coronation Street portraying Martha Fraser, a love interest for Ken Barlow (played by William Roache). She made her first appearance on 26 January 2009 and her last on 4 May 2009.

On 17 February 2010, Beacham appeared in the final episode of the BBC series Material Girl. On 3 April 2010, she made a guest appearance in the long-running BBC hospital drama series Casualty.

In October 2011, Beacham released her autobiography Many Lives in which she discusses her life and career. The book includes a foreword written by her Coronation Street co-star William Roache.

In 2012, Beacham reunited with her Dynasty co-star Joan Collins in a UK television advert for Snickers, however the ad was later re-edited and Beacham’s appearance cut. She also appeared as store manager Lorraine Chain in Sky1’s supermarket-based sitcom Trollied for eight episodes between August 2012 and October 2012. The same year, she also appeared in three episodes of Sky Living’s Mount Pleasant as Aunty Pam.

In January 2013, Beacham was a guest on ITV’s daytime chat show Loose Women to promote her appearance on the first episode of the second series of Death in Paradise which aired on 8 January 2013.

In recent years, Beacham has appeared in Christmas pantomime. In 2006, she played the Wicked Witch in a production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarves in Guildford. She appeared there again the following year in a production of Jack and the Beanstalk.

On 3 January 2010, Beacham entered Channel 4’s seventh and final series of Celebrity Big Brother as a housemate; she was the only female to make it to the final and finished in 5th place on 29 January 2010.

Beacham was involved in launching the Sense-National Deafblind and Rubella Association Fill in the Gaps campaign which aims to give the elderly the support they need to maintain a good quality of life. She also attended the Parliamentary launch of the campaign in June 2006.

In September 2016 Beacham was a guest on BBC Radio 2’s Graham Norton Show and discussed her forthcoming role as Princess Margaret. The new play, A Princess Undone by Richard Stirling, will premiere at the Cambridge Arts Theatre in October and is „set to scandalise admirers of the Royal family“.

Beacham is partially deaf, having been born with no hearing in her right ear and 80% hearing in her left ear.

Beacham married actor John McEnery in 1973; the couple divorced in 1979. They have two daughters, Phoebe and Chloe.

Beacham was successfully treated for skin cancer in 2009. She had a recurrence of the disease in 2011 but has again recovered.

In March 2016 Beacham revealed to The Sunday Telegraph that she had been raped, when she had been up-and-coming actress, in her twenties.

Hoad Monument

Hoad Monument (proper name: the Sir John Barrow Monument) is a 100 ft (30.5 m) tower at the top of Hoad Hill (436 ft/133 m), to the north-east of Ulverston in the Furness area of north-west England. Paid for mainly by public subscription, the monument was erected in 1850 at a cost of £1250. It commemorates Sir John Barrow who was born in Ulverston in 1764. Sir John was a founder member of the Royal Geographic Society, and held various government posts in the 19th century becoming the Second Secretary to the Admiralty.

The monument is not a lighthouse: it has never had a functional light. However, it was designed to resemble one, and is similar to the Third Eddystone Lighthouse (Smeaton’s Tower). It is a Grade II* listed building, meaning that it is of more than local interest, and the monument stands as one of the iconic symbols of the Northwest of England. It is built of limestone quarried locally at Birkrigg Common. Due to its elevated and exposed position, it is one of the most prominent landmarks in Cumbria. The hollow tower can be ascended via a spiral stone staircase of 112 steps. At the top, eight apertures provide a magnificent 360-degree panorama of the Furness Peninsula, Morecambe Bay and the southern Lake District. In recent times the formerly open apertures have been glazed.

Sometimes simply known as „Hoad“, the tower is also occasionally referred to as „the pepper pot“. This epithet was famously used by Lord Haw-Haw during one of his propaganda broadcasts of World War II when he warned the residents of Ulverston that the German Air Force would bomb their pepper pot.

Hoad Monument is normally open during the summer months when a flag is flying outside the monument. Ulverston Towns Lands Trust owns both the monument and Hoad Hill.

In 2009/2010 the monument underwent a £1.2 million restoration. The majority of funding came in the form of a £891,000 grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund with the Friends of the Sir John Barrow Monument collecting grants and donations for the rest.

The restoration included a series of structural improvements to make the monument watertight, the most noticeable of these being the addition of a copper roof covering the stone dome, which was itself removed and rebuilt.

The official reopening was on Sunday 22 August 2010 and was marked by a gala at Ford Park, barn dance and firework display.

Coordinates:

Communauté de communes du Doustre et du Plateau des Étangs

Die Communauté de communes du Doustre et du Plateau des Étangs ist ein französischer Gemeindeverband mit der Rechtsform einer Communauté de communes im Département Corrèze in der Region Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes. Sie wurde am 4. Dezember 2001 gegründet und umfasst sieben Gemeinden. Der Verwaltungssitz befindet sich im Ort La Roche-Canillac.

Communautés de communes:
Bugeat-Sornac-Millevaches au Cœur | Canton de Mercœur | Canton de Saint-Privat | Doustre et Plateau des Étangs | Gorges de la Haute Dordogne | Lubersac-Auvézère | Monédières | Pays d’Argentat | Pays de Beynat | Pays d’Eygurande | Pays de Pompadour | Pays de Saint-Yrieix* | Pays d’Uzerche | Sud Corrézien | Ussel-Meymac-Haute Corrèze | Val et Plateaux Bortois* | Ventadour | Vézère-Monédières | Villages du Midi Corrézien

Communautés d’agglomération:
Bassin de Brive | Tulle Agglo

Den mit * gekennzeichneten Gemeindeverbänden gehören auch Gemeinden an, die in anderen Départements liegen.

Schenkenbergkapelle

Die Schenkenbergkapelle oder auch Schenkenberger Kapelle «Maria Opferung» ist eine Wallfahrtskapelle bei Emmingen-Liptingen im Landkreis Tuttlingen.

An der Stelle der heutigen Kapelle aus dem Jahr 1720 stand bereits um 1275 eine kleine Kirche. Der Ort Schenkenberg wurde im 15. Jahrhundert zerstört und nicht wieder aufgebaut. Nur der Schenkenberger Hof und die Kapelle erinnern noch daran, sie steht nur wenige Meter neben der Ruine Schenkenberg, hier befand sich einst der Sitz der Herren von Schenkenberg.

Die Wallfahrt geht zurück bis in das Jahr 1688, wenig später entstanden die ersten von 150 Votivtafeln zu Ehren dem Gnadenbild Unserer Lieben Frau zu Schenkenberg. In der Nähe der Wallfahrtskirche befindet sich ein aus dem Jahre 2001 neu errichteter Kreuzweg.

Neben der Kapelle befindet sich die Gaststätte Schenkenberger Hof, die der ehemalige Daimler-Chrysler-Vorstand Klaus Mangold 2013 erwarb und mit seiner Familie betreibt.

Koordinaten:

Lavangen Idrettsforening

Lavangen Idrettsforening (stiftet 1. juni 1946) er et idrettslag fra Soløy i Lavangen, som driver med fotball, skiidrett(langrenn) og allidrett.

Lavangen IF har både senior menn og aldersbestemte gutte-/jente-lag. Senior menn spiller i 6. div menn avdeling 1. Hjemmebanen er Lavangen stadion, og har kunstgress.

Det ca. 55 km lange løypenettet starter ut fra Skavmodalen, i retning Gratangen og Lapphaugen, og vest mot Keiprødfjellene. Det er plassert ut 6 trimkasser i tilknytning til løypenettet, antall besøkende i disse kassene ligger årlig på ca. 1250 stk. til sammen.

Tirsdagsrennene er barneskirenn og arrangeres som cup, det er normalt 9 renn hver sesong. Tirsdagsrennene arrangeres i samarbeid med Soløy IG (en del av UL Fram) og Fossbakken bygdelag, skirennene blir arrangert hver sin gang i Skavmodalen, Soløy og Fossbakken.

Lavangsmesterskapet er klubbmesterskap i Lavangen IF. Det arrangeres på slutten av sesongen, og går i Skavmodalen.

Utdypende artikkel: Spanstind Rundt

Spanstind Rundt er et turrenn som arrangeres av Lavangen IF hver skjærtorsdag. Det starter i Skavmodalen og har målgang på Lapphaugen. Det er blant de største turrennene i Nord-Norge, og har rundt 400 deltakere.

Bardufoss 2 · Brøstadbotn · Foot 04 · Gryllefjord · Lavangen/Salangen 2 · Mårfjell · Pioner · Sørreisa · Sørreisa 2 · Vårsol

Bambera

Bambera (Spanish pronunciation: [bamˈbeɾa]) is a cante, one of many traditional song forms associated with flamenco.

The bambera or bamba derives from the cante de columpio, meaning „song of the swing“, which is one of the traditional Andalusian song forms associated with flamenco. These songs were known as bambas or mecederos (from a Spanish word meaning ‚to sway‘), because they were sung to the rhythm of a swing.

Jose de Bisso in his Chronicle of the Province of Seville (1868) describes it thus:

The origin of the bamba/bambera is ascribed to the flamenco singer known as Niña de los Peines (real name Pastora María Pavón Cruz 1890 – 1969), considered one of the most important voices in the history of the art. This song form was further developed by Naranjito de Triana who imposed the distinctive rhythmic pattern of 12 count soleá.

The bamba has four octosyllabic lines or alternatively, a first and third line of seven syllables with a second and fourth line of five syllables. The first two lines are generally repeated at the end of each verse, or sometimes only the second line is repeated thus making a five line verse.

The bamba has been recorded by many singers; among others are La Niña de los Peines, Enrique Morente, Carmen Linares and Rocío Jurado.

                   Péinate tú con mis peines,

                   que mis peines son de azúcar,

                   quien con mis peines se peina,

                   hasta los dedos se chupa.

                  

                   Péinate tú con mis peines,

                   mis peines son de canela,

                   la gachí que se peina con mis peines,

                   canela lleva de veras.

                                                    La Niña de los Peines (Pastora María Pavón Cruz)

La bamba está bien sujeta (The swing is holding well)
con una soga en ca lao (with a rope falling.)
meciéndote se te aprietan (to push you swinging)
mis manos a tu costao (My hands on your hips)