17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

World War II

The 17th Panzer Division (German: 17. Panzer-Division) was a formation of the Wehrmacht in World War II. It was formed in November 1940 from the 27th Infantry Division. It took part in Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, and in the winter of 1941–42 participated in the Battle of Moscow. In November 1942, the division was sent to the southern sector of the Eastern Front where it participated in Operation Winter Storm, the failed attempt to relieve the surrounded troops at Stalingrad. The division was held in reserve during the Battle of Kursk in 1943, and thereafter retreated through Ukraine and Poland, before ending the war in Czechoslovakia.

The 27th Infantry Division was formed in October 1936 in Augsburg, Bavaria, as a peace-time division of the new German Wehrmacht. The division was mobilised on 26 August 1939 and took part in the Invasion of Poland and the Battle of France. In 1943, a Nazi propaganda book was published about the division’s actions in France 1940, titled Über Somme, Seine, Loire (English: Across the Somme, the Seine, the Loire).

The 17th Panzer Division was formed in late 1940, when the 27th Infantry Division was converted to an armored division. In part, the 2nd Panzer Division provided personnel for the new division. The majority of its troops came from the Bavarian region of Swabia, then the Nazi Gau Swabia

In May 1941, the division was transferred to the central sector of the planned attack on the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, and became part of the XXXXVII Panzer Corps, which in turn was part of the 2nd Panzer Group, commanded by Heinz Guderian. The division’s commander, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, was wounded within the first few days of the campaign, on 24 June, but later returned to his unit. His temporary replacement, Karl Ritter von Weber, was mortally wounded south of Smolensk on 17 July, putting Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma in charge until von Arnim returned.

The division crossed the Bug River and advanced south of Minsk, where it made contact with the 3rd Panzer Group. It took part in the Battle of Białystok–Minsk, where it recorded up to 100 Soviet tanks destroyed in a single day, 9 July, at Orsha. It then crossed the river Dnjepr south of Orsha and took part in defensive operations south of Smolensk in August and September.

In October, it took part in the run up to the Battle of Moscow, taking Bryansk on 15 October. The division was then concentrated at Orel and advanced towards Tula, where it was engaged in a failed attempt to encircle the city. With the Soviet counterattack on 5 December, the division started retreating on the 8th, after having reached a point 120 km south east of Moscow. The division took defensive positions northeast of Orel, where it remained until the Summer of 1942.

After the winter battles, the division was reconstituted near its front line positions in the early summer of 1942. It received approximately 50 tanks of the type Panzer III and Panzer IV. It was engaged in minor attacks north of Orel in September but then went into defensive positions again. The division was then held in Army Group Centre reserve near Bolkhov. At this stage, it only fielded 45 to 50 tanks of varying types (down from a nominal strength of around 200). In October 1942, when Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin took command of the division, it had only 30 operational tanks, and one-third of its trucks were unserviceable.

After Operation Uranus, the Soviet counterattack at Stalingrad, the division was quickly transferred to Army Group B in the area of Millerovo. From there, it marched towards Kotelnikovo and joined the 4th Panzer Army for Operation Winter Storm, a relief operation aimed at linking up with the encircled 6th Army, together with the 6th Panzer Division and the 23rd Panzer Division. The operation failed however, and the division retreated at the end of December. Losses were so heavy that the command of the 63rd Panzer Grenadier Regiment laid in the hands of a lieutenant, its original commander having been killed in action. By Christmas Eve 1942, the division fielded only eight operational tanks and one anti-tank gun.

The division continued its retreat towards the Don bridgehead at Rostov-on-Don, which it reached at the end of January. The 39th Panzer Regiment was re-equipped with 50 new Panzer IV tanks shortly after and the division took part in counterattacks between the Mius and the Donets rivers. By 27 February, the division had been reduced to less than 2,000 men, six tanks and ten anti-tank guns but avoided further destruction when the Soviet forces withdrew behind the Donets river. After this, it was engaged in tank battles near Belgorod until the end of April.

The division did not take part in the Battle of Kursk. Instead, it stayed in reserve, behind the front line, as part of the XXIV Panzer Corps. It took part in some successful counterattacks after the battle, in the Donets-Izium area. On 20 July, Generalleutnant Walter Schilling became the second division commander of the division to be killed in action. In July, the division had the following strength in tanks, of which 84% were operational: 4 Panzer II; 29 Panzer III; 32 Panzer IV; 2 T-34. In September, the division retreated from the Donets to positions behind the Dnjepr river, taking up a defensive line on the western side of the river. Initially it was posted at Krivoi Rog, in November it moved to Kherson, as part of the re-formed 6th Army.

In late January and early February 1944, the 17th Panzer Division took part in the relief operations for the Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket, as part of the III Panzer Corps. In the end, the involved German tank divisions were halted by the Red Army 12 km from the pocket but the troops inside broke out, abandoning their heavy equipment. It was then part of the 1st Panzer Army in the Kamenets-Podolsky pocket, where it lost most of its own heavy equipment, but escaped as a whole.

It remained in reserve again in April and May, stationed behind the frontline, before taking part in operations around Lviv to counter the Soviet Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. Until the end of October, the unit took part in operations in the Tarnów region and then south of the Baranow bridgehead, near Sandomierz. From November, it became part of the reserves receiving 80 Panzer IV and Panzer V tanks (Panthers).

With the start of the Soviet Vistula–Oder Offensive on 12 January 1945, the 17th Panzer Division, alongside the 16th Panzer Division were the main reserve forces in the sector, retained for a counterattack to the Soviet advance. Both divisions, stationed too close to the front line due to Hitlers restraining order, suffered heavy casualties through bombardment and had their communications destroyed. Their task, to throw back the Soviet advance, was impossible to achieve.

The division found itself in constant retreat as part of the XXIV Panzer Corps commanded by Walther Nehring, first towards Łódź, then crossing the Oder, where it took positions near Głogów in February. It took part in defensive operations near the Ścinawa (German: Steinau) bridgehead in mid-February. The division had suffered heavy losses during those events and was re-supplied near Görlitz, now renamed Kampfgruppe 17th Panzer Division due to being severely understrength and being no more in size than a regiment. It continued its defensive actions in the region during the Silesian Offensives. The division was eventually forced to retreat into Czechoslovakia, heading towards Brno.

In February 1945, the division, by now reduced to a Kampfgruppe, was attached to Army Group Center on the Oder River. By March 1945, it retreated as far as Jägerndorf by the Red Army. Early in April, it had retreated southwest into Moravia, where in quick succession it came under the order of 17th Army and 1st Army. The division surrendered to the Soviet army near Görlitz at the end of April 1945.

The order of battle in 1944. The 63rd Panzergrenadier Regiment was disbanded in late 1944. The regiments first battalion replaced the third battalion of 40th Panzergrenadier Regiment. The second battalion of the 63rd Regiment became the second battalion of the 79th Panzer-Füsilier Regiment. The 297th Army Flak Battalion had only joined the division in 1943 and the Panzergrenadier Regiment had been called Schützen Regiment until July 1942.

HQ

39th Panzer Regiment

40th Panzergrenadier Regiment

27th Panzerjäger Battalion

27th Panzer Reconnaissance Battalion

27th Panzer Artillery Regiment

297th Army Flak Battalion

27th Panzer Signals Battalion

27th Panzer Pioneer Battalion

Joan Fuster

Joan Fuster i Ortells (dʒoˈan fusˈteɾ j oɾˈteʎs) (* 23. November 1922 in Sueca, Valencia; † 21. Juni 1992 ebenda) war ein spanischer Schriftsteller, der hauptsächlich auf Katalanisch veröffentlichte.

Fuster wurde in Sueca (in der Nähe von Valencia, Spanien) geboren. Er stammte aus einer wohlhabenden Familie. Seine Eltern waren fromme Katholiken und Karlisten. Sein Vater war ein berühmter Bildhauer von religiösen Skulpturen. 1947 schloss Fuster sein Jurastudium ab. Er promovierte 1985 mit einer Dissertation über katalanische Philologie. Von 1946 bis 1956 war er mit José Albi Direktor der Zeitschrift Verb. Ende der 1940er-Jahre begann er in Levante, für Zeitungen zu schreiben. Dies setzte er bis ins hohe Alter fort. Er veröffentlichte später unter anderem in Destino und La Vanguardia. Seine ersten Buchveröffentlichungen waren Gedichtsammlungen, darunter Escrit per al silenci („Schriften für die Stille“) (1954).

Mit El descrèdit de la Realitat („Der Misskredit der Realität“) (1955) begann er eine wichtige Karriere als Essayist mit einer riesigen thematischen Breite. Ein Kennzeichnen seines Stils war die akkurate Benutzung von Adjektiven. Ein anderer Aspekt seiner Werke ist seine Belesenheit und seine Bemühung für das gute Geschichtenerzählen. Er widmete sich auch valencianischen Themen, so 1962 mit der Veröffentlichung eines seiner berühmtesten Werke: Nosaltres els valencians („Wir die Valencianer“), das wie die ebenfalls 1962 veröffentlichten Qüestió de Noms („Namensfrage“) und El País Valenciano („Das valencianische Land“, auf Spanisch) ein bedeutendes Buch über die Geschichte, die Kultur und das Nationalidentitätsproblem der valencianischen Gemeinschaft aus einer katalanistischen Perspektive ist.

Mit diesen valencianischen Themen beschäftigte er sich auch in den Büchern Raimon (1964), Combustible per a falles („Brennstoff für Falles“) (1967) und Ara o Mai („Jetzt oder niemals“) (1981). Diese Werke und Teile seiner zahlreichen Studien und geschichtlichen und biographischen Artikeln sind in den Bänden I. und III. der Obres completes („Gesamte Werke“) gesammelt worden. Das Diari („Tagebuch“) (1952–1960) ist im II. Band gesammelt worden.

Unter seinen Essays kann man diese hervorheben: Figures del temps („Figuren der Zeit“), Yxart-Preis (1957), Judicis Finals („Jüngste Gerichte“) (1960), Diccionari per a ociosos („Wörterbuch für Faulenzer“) (1964), Causar-se d’esperar („Sich bewirken, um zu warten“) (1965), L’home, mesura de totes les coses („Der Mann, das Maß aller Sachen“) (1967). Fuster war immer innerhalb der Tradition des klassischen Humanismus. Seine Ideen waren denen der Moralisten und der französischen Reformatoren ähnlich (von Montaigne bis zu den Enzyklopädisten). Als Kritiker war Fuster bekannt für seinen scharfen Humor. La Poesia Catalana („die katalanische Poesie“) (1956), Poetes, Moriscos i Capellans („Dichter, Mauren und Priester“) (1962), Heretgies, Revoltes i Sermons („Häresien, Aufstände und Predigten“) (1968) und Literatura Catalana Contemporània („Heutige katalanische Literatur“) (1972) sind Werke von Fuster über Geschichte, Literatur und Literaturkritik. Darüber hinaus schrieb er drei ausführliche Einleitungen für die Werke von Joan Salvat-Papasseit (1962), Salvador Espriu (1963) und Josep Pla (1966). Sie wurden 1978 unter dem Titel Contra el Noucentisme („Gegen Noucentismus“) gesammelt.

1987 sammelte er seine ganzen poetischen Werken in Set llibres de versos („Sieben Bücher von Versen“). Llibres i problemes del Renaixentisme („Bücher und Probleme der Renaissance“) (1989) ist eine Sammlung von Studien, die er während der letzten Jahre seines Lebens ausführte. 1994 wurden die Bücher Fuster Inèdit („Unveröffentlichter Fuster“) und Fuster Sabàtic („Sabbat-Fuster“) herausgegeben.

Obwohl er Prosaliteratur schrieb, ist er für seine Essays, besonders für die politischen, bekannt. Sein wichtigstes einflussreichstes Werk ist bei weitem das Buch Nosaltres els valencians („Wir die Valencianer“) (1962). Andere Bücher wie z. B. Qüestió de Noms („Namensfrage“) und Diccionari per a Ociosos („Wörterbuch für Faulenzer“) (1963) sind in der Bewegung des katalanischen Nationalismus bekannt. Er wurde der intellektuelle Leiter des valencianischen Nationalismus am Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts. Er war der wichtigste Verteidiger der Idee der Països Catalans (katalanische Länder). Diese Idee förderte die Einheit der Länder, wo Katalanisch gesprochen wird (besonders Katalonien, die balearischen Inseln und die valencianische Gemeinschaft). In diesen Büchern behauptete Fuster, dass Valencia mit anderen katalanischsprachigen Ländern mehr Beziehungen haben sollte, wenn die autochthone Kultur Überlebenmöglichkeiten haben soll. In diesem Sinne versuchte er die Verwirklichung einer katalanischsprachigen kulturellen Gemeinschaft.

Es wird sogar behauptet, dass Fuster der wichtigste politische Essayist der katalanischen Literatur nach dem spanischen Bürgerkrieg ist.

1975 wurde ihm der Premi d’Honor de les Lletres Catalanes („Katalanische Geisteswissenschaft-Preis“) verliehen. Er bekam auch im Jahre 1983 die Medalla d’Or de la Generalitat de Catalunya („Goldene Medaille der katalanischen Regierung“). 1984 wurde er Emeritus an der Universität Barcelona und an der Autonomen Universität Barcelona.1986 wurde er Literaturlehrer und Professor an der Universität Valencia.

Am 11. September 1981, explodierten zwei Bomben in seinem Haus. Diese Bomben beschädigten seine Bibliothek und sein Archiv. Niemand wurde strafrechtlich verfolgt, aber es gab den Verdacht, dass der Angriff wegen Fusters politischer und kultureller Ansichten von antikatalanistischen und faschischtischen Gruppen Valencias ausging.

Søndre Katland fyr

Søndre Katland fyr ligger 2,5 sjømil ut fra Farsund. Det er et ledfyr i innseilingen til Farsund og uthavnen Loshavn. Søndre Katland er meget utsatt for vær og vind og har dårlig havn.

Fyret ble bygd i betong samtidig med Grønningen fyr utenfor Kristiansand. Begge disse fyrene ble satt i drift 1. september 1878.

Under stormer har sjøen slått inn vinduene i 2. etasje og gitt store vannskader. Hele fyrbygningen kunne bli overskyllet og selv pipa kunne bli fylt med vann. Havna på innsiden av skjæret hadde opprinnelig et naust av tre. Etter at hard sjø ødela bygningen, ble den erstattet av en bunkersliknende betongkonstruksjon som kunne beskytte båtene.

Da fyret var bemannet og matauk var viktig hadde man kjøkkenhage i jordkasser som ble tatt i hus hver høst.

Fyret ble avbemannet i 1948.

Foto: Lars Verket

Grønningen fyr · Hatholmen fyr · Lindesnes fyr · Lista fyr · Markøy fyr · Odderøya fyr · Oksøy fyr · Ryvingen fyr · Songvår fyr · Søndre Kattland fyr

Head Over Heels (игра)

Обложка игры Head Over Heels

Head over Heels — компьютерная игра с изометрической графикой, разработанная в 1987 году фирмой Ocean Software для ряда платформ. Изначально была выпущена для компьютеров с процессором Z80 — ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC и MSX. Игра оказалась успешной и была портирована на другие компьютеры — Amiga, Amstrad PCW, Atari (8-разрядная линейка), Atari ST, Commodore 64. Также игра была неофициально портирована на Commodore Plus/4. В сентябре 2003 года энтузиастами был выпущен мультиплатформенный ремейк игры для современных компьютеров.

Игра получила очень хорошие отзывы в игровой прессе. Журнал CRASH дал ей оценку 97 %, журнал Your Sinclair — оценку 9/10. Игра заняла 30-ю позицию CRASH Top 100, 5-ю позицию YS Top 100 и 14-ю позицию YS Readers Top 100.

Сюжет игры схематичен и почти не имеет отношения к геймплею. Планета Свобода (Freedom) отправила двух своих агентов для освобождения пяти планет, порабощённых империей Чёрного Клыка (Blacktooth Empire). Оба агента были схвачены и посажены в тюрьму. Задача игрока — воссоединить их, пройти лабиринт из более чем 300 комнат и собрать пять корон.

Оба агента, Голова (Head) и Ноги (Heels), (отдаленно похожие на котенка и щенка) обычно управляются по отдельности, но их можно и объединить в одно целое. У каждого есть свои преимущества: Голова может высоко прыгать, контролироваться в прыжке и стрелять, а Ноги быстрее перемещаются и могут носить с собой предметы.

При объединении агентов (которое достигается запрыгиванием одного на другого) получается 2 гибрида, несколько отличающихся по доступному набору функций от отдельных персонажей. Для прохождения лабиринта требуются уникальные свойства обоих агентов.

Основа прохождения лабиринта – решение многочисленных логических задач, в ряде комнат (локаций) помимо обычного логически продуманного последовательного использования предметов необходимо сложное взаимодействие обоих персонажей. В некоторых локациях отдельные действия выполняются управляемой фигурой, для чего один из героев помещается в подобие джойстика – ограниченное „кнопками“ с 4 сторон поле, перемещение героя в каком-либо направлении в нём вызывает перемещение управляемой фигуры.

Как и в более ранней игре „Бэтмен“ от этих же разработчиков, движок игры отличался очень интересной особенностью: „сквозным“ информационным пространством для хранения данных. Большинство параметров объектов игры кодировалось 3-битными последовательностями (например – цвет комнаты, наличие или отсутствие объекта на оси x, y, или z , его тип), что устраивало разработчиков игры. Но 1 байт, состоящий из 8 бит, оказывался избыточным для хранения 2 признаков и недостаточным для хранения 3. Разработчики в условиях жесткого недостатка оперативной памяти бытовых компьютеров применили „сквозное“ хранение данных: то есть последовательности триад из 3 битов непрерывно переходили с байта на байт памяти в базе данных. Это обеспечило небывало большое, по меркам того времени, рабочее поле игры.

Существует версия игры, адаптированная для поддержки режима 256-цветной графики в эмуляторах Spec256 и EmuZWin.

List of Members of the United States House of Representatives in the 97th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 97th United States Congress listed by seniority.
As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 97th Congress (January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1983). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.

Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

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1 (1789)
2 (1791)
3 (1793)
4 (1795)
5 (1797)
6 (1799)
7 (1801)
8 (1803)
9 (1805)
10 (1807)

11 (1809)
12 (1811)
13 (1813)
14 (1815)
15 (1817)
16 (1819)
17 (1821)
18 (1823)
19 (1825)
20 (1827)

21 (1829)
22 (1831)
23 (1833)
24 (1835)
25 (1837)
26 (1839)
27 (1841)
28 (1843)
29 (1845)
30 (1847)

31 (1849)
32 (1851)
33 (1853)
34 (1855)
35 (1857)
36 (1859)
37 (1861)
38 (1863)
39 (1865)
40 (1867)

41 (1869)
42 (1871)
43 (1873)
44 (1875)
45 (1877)
46 (1879)
47 (1881)
48 (1883)
49 (1885)
50 (1887)

51 (1889)
52 (1891)
53 (1893)
54 (1895)
55 (1897)
56 (1899)
57 (1901)
58 (1903)
59 (1905)
60 (1907)

61 (1909)
62 (1911)
63 (1913)
64 (1915)
65 (1917)
66 (1919)
67 (1921)
68 (1923)
69 (1925)
70 (1927)

71 (1929)
72 (1931)
73 (1933)
74 (1935)
75 (1937)
76 (1939)
77 (1941)
78 (1943)
79 (1945)
80 (1947)

81 (1949)
82 (1951)
83 (1953)
84 (1955)
85 (1957)
86 (1959)
87 (1961)
88 (1963)
89 (1965)
90 (1967)

91 (1969)
92 (1971)
93 (1973)
94 (1975)
95 (1977)
96 (1979)
97 (1981)
98 (1983)
99 (1985)
100 (1987)

101 (1989)
102 (1991)
103 (1993)
104 (1995)
105 (1997)
106 (1999)
107 (2001)
108 (2003)
109 (2005)
110 (2007)

111 (2009)
112 (2011)
113 (2013)
114 (2015)

Nidaa Tounes

Nidaa Tounes (Arabic: حركة نداء تونس‎‎ Nidā’ Tūnis, French: Appel de la Tunisie; usually translated as „Call of Tunisia“, „Call for Tunisia“, or „Tunisia’s Call“) is a big tent secularist political party in Tunisia. After being founded in 2012, the party won a plurality of seats in the October 2014 parliamentary election. The party’s founding leader Beji Caid Essebsi was elected President of Tunisia in the 2014 presidential election.

The party’s foundation was announced when former prime minister Beji Caid Essebsi on April 20, 2012 launched his Call for Tunisia as a response to post-revolutionary „instances of disturbing extremism and violence that threaten public and individual liberties, as well as the security of the citizens“. It was officially founded on 16 June 2012 and describes itself as a „modernist“ and „social-democratic“ party of the moderate left. However, it also includes notable economically liberal currents.

The party has patched together former members of ousted president Ben Ali’s Constitutional Democratic Rally, secular leftists, progressive liberals and Destourians (followers of Tunisia’s „founder“ Habib Bourguiba). In addition, the party has the support of many members of the Tunisian General Labour Union (UGTT) and the national employers‘ union, UTICA. They believe that Tunisia’s secular forces have to unite to counter the dominance of the Islamist Ennahda Movement.

From its foundation until July 2013, 11 members of the Constituent Assembly joined the party by defecting from various other parties.

On 11 February 2013, the Republican Party joined Nidaa Tounes and four other parties in a political alliance called Union for Tunisia (UPT). Moreover, it participated in the formation of the broad oppositional National Salvation Front in July 2013. However, ahead of the October 2014 legislative election, Nidaa Tounes decided to run its own lists and not to contest the election as part of the UPT.

Eve (rapper)

Eve Jihan Jeffers-Cooper (born November 10, 1978) is an American rapper and actress from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She is also the inaugural winner of the Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration in 2002, for the song „Let Me Blow Ya Mind“, with American singer Gwen Stefani. Eve was number 48 on VH1’s „50 Greatest Women of the Video Era“ list.

As an actress, Eve is known for her roles as Terri Jones in the films Barbershop, Barbershop 2: Back in Business and Barbershop: The Next Cut, as well as Shelley Williams on the UPN television sitcom Eve. She has also achieved success in fashion, with her clothing line, Fetish.

Eve was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Julie Wilch, a publishing company supervisor, and Jerry Jeffers, a chemical plant supervisor. She adopted the name Gangsta in high school as part of an all-female group called EDGP (pronounced „Egypt“)

During her early years in Philadelphia, she was educated at Martin Luther King High School. Eve’s first musical interest was singing. She sang in many choirs and even formed an all-female singing group (Dope Girl Posse or D.G.P.) with a manager. This group covered songs from En Vogue and Color Me Badd. The group’s manager suggested that the group should rap after seeing ABC, and Eve stuck with it. She then went on to form a rapping group. After the group split, Eve began working on a solo career under the name „Eve of Destruction.“ Eve has lived in Los Angeles, New York City, and most recently has resided in London.

In 1999, she was featured on Prince’s album Rave Un2 The Joy Fantastic, and she was to co-star on the eventually cancelled Hot Wit‘ U single from that same album. Eve is featured (along with Erykah Badu) on the song „You Got Me“ by The Roots, from their 1999 album Things Fall Apart. The song won a Grammy Award in 2000, which should have been Eve’s first. She stated on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon in 2009 that she did not receive a Grammy for the track. Questlove, from The Roots, had brought his Grammy to the show that night and showed she’s not even credited on the award plaque. She also provided background vocals on the song „Ain’t Sayin‘ Nothin‘ New“ from the same album. In the album’s liner notes, she is referred to as Eve of Destruction.

Eve first appeared on the Bulworth soundtrack as Eve of Destruction while signed to Dr. Dre’s Aftermath Entertainment. She did not receive much promotion with big releases soon coming from Dr. Dre, so she collaborated with DMX and the Ruff Ryders on her first single as a Ruff Ryder DJ Clue?’s The Professional, along with other Ruff Ryders‘ compilations. In between those releases, Eve guest appears on The Roots fourth album Things Fall Apart with the single „You Got Me“; although she did not appear in the video Her next single, „What Ya Want“, featuring Nokio the N-Tity of Dru Hill, became a top 40 hit on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 peaking at 29. Her 1999 debut, Let There Be Eve…Ruff Ryders‘ First Lady, was an unprecedented success, making it the third album by a female rap artist to top the Billboard 200, behind Lauryn Hill’s The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill (1998) and Foxy Brown’s Chyna Doll (1999). Two singles were released from the album: „Gotta Man“ and „Love Is Blind“ featuring Faith Evans. The first one peaked at number 26 on the Billboard Hot 100, the second one at number 34. In November 1999, Eve featured on Missy Elliott’s single „Hot Boyz (Remix)“ along with Nas, Lil Mo and Q-Tip. The song became a hit, spending 18 weeks at number one on the Hot Rap Singles from November 16, 1999 to March 7, 2000, and reaching number 5 on the Billboard Hot 100 .

The follow-up to Ruff Ryders‘ First Lady, Scorpion, was released in 2001. Its first single, „Who’s That Girl“ guaranteed the rapper first international success. The second single, „Let Me Blow Ya Mind“ (with Gwen Stefani of No Doubt and produced by Dr. Dre co-written by then-boyfriend Stevie J.), became a pop success, peaking at number two on the Billboard Hot 100. The song won a Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration, and Eve eventually went platinum. One of the record’s strengths, cited in several reviews, was Eve’s exploration of her singing voice in addition to her rapping skills. „I was a singer before I started rapping,“ Eve said in a Ruff Ryders press release, „so on this album I wanted my audience to hear more of my vocal skills“.

Eve’s third album, Eve-Olution, was released in summer 2002 (see 2002 in music) and peaked at number six on the Billboard 200. In the meantime, the album’s first single, „Gangsta Lovin'“, with Alicia Keys, became another number two hit. The second and final single, „Satisfaction“, only saw moderate success again. Eve-Olution went gold, selling 720,000 copies total in the U.S.. Eve also appeared on the remixed version of Michael Jackson’s „Butterflies“. She also launched a clothing line in the fall of 2003 titled Fetish, which were targeted towards female consumers of the Urban demographic. The line lasted six years.

In 2005, the rapper appeared on Gwen Stefani’s cover version of Louchie Lou & Michie One song „Rich Girl“, which peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 in March. The same year, she appeared on the official remix of Amerie’s number one U.S. R&B hit, „1 Thing“ (featured on the Hitch soundtrack). Eve also was featured in Keyshia Cole’s single „Never“ on the Barbershop 2: Back in Business soundtrack and Cole’s debut album The Way It Is, along with the official remix for Teairra Mari’s second single, „No Daddy“. In 2007, she appeared on Kelly Rowland’s single „Like This“. The Punk Cabaret band One On None covered Eve’s 1999 song „Love Is Blind“. In July 2007, Eve made a guest appearance on Maroon 5’s second single Wake Up Call on Live @ 45th at Night, it is unknown if this will be an official remix or if it will even be recorded. In late 2008, she sang the song „Set It On Fire“, which was featured on the credits for the movie Transporter 3 and is available on the Transporter 3 soundtrack. In April 2009, Eve featured along with Lil Jon on the song „Patron Tequila“, the debut single of girl group Paradiso Girls.

In March 2010, Eve featured on the official remix of Ludacris‘ song „My Chick Bad“, Diamond and Trina are also featured in the song. The three female rappers starred in the video for the remix, in which Nicki Minaj also appears. In November 2010, Eve wrote and performed a rap on Australian singer Guy Sebastian’s single „Who’s That Girl“, which reached number one on the ARIA Singles Chart and has been certified 4x platinum sold. In December 2010, Eve featured on Alicia Keys‘ track „Speechless“, though the song will not be released as a single or part of an album, it did chart on the US R&B chart at number 71, making it Eve’s first appearance as a featured artist on the Billboard Charts for quite some time. On December 10, 2010 Eve hosted the 2010 edition of MTV Africa Music Awards in Lagos, Nigeria.

In March 2011, Eve featured on Swizz Beatz‘ song and video „Everyday (Coolin‘)“, the first promotional single from his upcoming album Haute Living. In April 2011, Eve featured on Jill Scott’s song „Shame“ from Scott’s Billboard 200 number one album The Light of the Sun. The same month, Eve featured on Russian rapper Timati’s new single and video „Money In Da Bank“. Eve also featured in „Get Em“, a song by electro house artist Wolfgang Gartner. In April 2012, Eve featured on reggae artist Shaggy’s single „Girls Just Wanna Have Fun“. The song samples the 1979 hit single by Cyndi Lauper. Eve appeared on the video of the song, released on YouTube on June 14, 2012. The song charted in some European countries.

In 2007, Eve began work on a new album titled Here I Am. In May 2007, XXL magazine profiled six recorded tracks from Here I Am. Five of them were produced by Swizz Beatz, including singles „Tambourine“ and „Give It to You“ (featuring Sean Paul). Pharrell Williams produced the song „All Night Long“, in which Eve sings rather than raps. XXL published a review of the original Here I Am in July, rating it an L in its „clothing size“ rating system ranging from S to XXL. However the album ran into a series of delays due to corporate change at the record label and discontent with the lackluster success of the first and second singles, „Tambourine“, released in April 2007, and „Give It to You“ (featuring Sean Paul), released during the summer.

The project was delayed to September 11, 2007 and then October 16, but it was never released. Problems at her label, Interscope Records, were responsible for the multiple delays. Although, being renamed twice from „Here I Am“ to „Flirt“ to „Lip Lock“. After Eve left Interscope and signed with EMI, Lip Lock was expected to be released during 2011, but it was again delayed. In 2012, Eve decided to release the album as an independent artist, and stated that there will be several buzz singles before the official single and said the album will have ‚hard street stuff‘, ‚radio singles‘ and stuff to listen to ‚when you’re feeling down‘. In an interview on Billboard.com Eve said: „One of the biggest things that I wanted to do on this album was make people realize why they fell in love with me in the first place and then take them on a journey to where I am now musically. My ear is different but I think people will recognize me. I think you’ll hear that I’m in a happy place. I miss my music. My hunger is different than the first time around“. The album Lip Lock was released under Eve’s own label From The Rib Music on May 14, 2013, it was distributed through Sony/RED.

On October 9, 2012 Eve released the promotional single „She Bad Bad“ on iTunes. On November 2012, Eve started on YouTube a series of weekly remixes called EVEstlin‘ Tuesdays, in which she added freestyle rap verses on 2012 hit singles like Rihanna’s „Diamonds“ and Miguel’s „Adorn“. On 8 January 2013 the video of „She Bad Bad“ was premiered. On January 23, Eve released an official remix of „She Bad Bad“ featuring Juicy J and Pusha T. On February 23, 2013 Eve released „Make It Out This Town“, the first official single from Lip Lock featuring Gabe Saporta of Cobra Starship. The music video of the song premiered on VEVO on March 29, 2013. In an interview on Rap-Up TV, Eve confirmed that the second official single would be the track „EVE“ featuring Jamaican reggae artist Miss Kitty. The music video for the song was shot in London in February and premiered on BET on April 29, 2013. „Lip Lock“ was released on May 14, 2013. The album features collaborations with Juicy J, Dawn Richards, Claude Kelly, Pusha T, Chrisette Michele, Nacho, Gabe Saporta, Propaine, Missy Elliott, and Snoop Dogg.On August 23, 2013 Eve kicked off the Lip Lock Tour, a U.S. only promotional tour. In September 2013, Eve stated in an interview with Rap Up that after her tour wraps up in NYC, she’s going back into the studio.

In June 2014, it was announced that Eve would make a guest appearance on the Oxygen docu-series Sisterhood of Hip Hop.

In April 2016, it was announced that Eve would join Gwen Stefani on her This Is What the Truth Feels Like Tour.

Eve appeared in XXX with Vin Diesel, both Barbershop and Barbershop 2: Back in Business with Ice Cube, The Cookout with Queen Latifah and Meagan Good, and The Woodsman with Kevin Bacon in mid 2004. She voiced Major Jones in the video game XIII, as well as one of the villains of the short-lived show Spider-Man Animated Series on MTV. She also featured in the 2008 British movie Flashbacks of a Fool alongside Daniel Craig.

In 2003, Eve starred in the UPN television sitcom, Eve, as a fashion designer named Shelly. The show lasted three seasons until it was cancelled in May 2006. Eve guest starred as Yvette Powell on an episode of Third Watch. She also was a guest star on an episode of Numb3rs in 2009.

In 2009, she had a role in the film Whip It as Rosa Sparks, opposite Ellen Page and Drew Barrymore.

Eve guest starred on two episodes of Glee, appearing as rival glee club coach Grace Hitchens.

In 2010, Eve appeared as Latisha, a supporting role, in Noel Clarke’s film 4.3.2.1.

Eve appears as Mocha Sujata the Gypsy Queen in the 2013 film Bounty Killer, starring Matthew Marsden and Christian Pitre. The film was directed by Henry Saine.

Eve will be in the horror film Animal, which was filmed in Manchester, Connecticut and is currently in post-production. Produced by Drew Barrymore, the film co-stars Elizabeth Gilles and Keke Palmer, and is scheduled for a limited release in 2014.

In July 2014, it was announced that Eve would be starring alongside fellow entertainer Jill Scott as well as actress Regina Hall in a Lifetime movie about three women who become determined to get married in a year’s time after the group’s fourth member ties the knot.

In 2012, Eve, Mike Lynn and Dr. Dre, Ruff Ryders Entertainment, Interscope Records, and Truth Hurts were accused of stealing songs from Gregory Hutchinson p/k/a Cold 187um of Above The Law. The plaintiffs claim the 1999 song „Love is Blind“ was stripped of some of its original components and presented as their own work.

Eve divides her time between London, Los Angeles and New York. She began dating British entrepreneur Maximillion Cooper in 2010. They became engaged on December 25, 2013. On June 14, 2014, Eve and Maximillion Cooper wed in Ibiza, Spain. Eve has four stepchildren.

In 1999, a dispute between Eve and New York City-based rapper Foxy Brown, began to build up in the midst of Brown’s alleged affair with Eve’s former mentor DMX. Additional tensions surfaced when Eve „subliminally dissed“ Foxy Brown and Lil‘ Kim on her records „Let Me Blow Ya Mind“ (2001) and „Double R What“ (2002), where she criticized the two for having ghostwriters and further solidified that she „writes [her] own songs“. In December 2002, Foxy Brown responded to the disses via her unreleased record „Get Off Me“, in which she compared Eve to a yorkie terrier, dubbed her a „jealous bum bitch“ and criticized her Alicia Keys-assisted single „Gangsta Lovin'“. That same year, Brown reportedly disapproved of Eve and former friend Charli Baltimore’s „Philly’s Finest“, a remake of Jay-Z and Notorious B.I.G.’s „Brooklyn’s Finest“, in which she felt the two Philly-bred female rappers were „disrespectful“. Brown also stated that when she and Lil‘ Kim debuted on the music scene, „everybody all of a sudden wanted a female in their crew“, adding that Eve wasn’t doing that for DMX and Ruff Ryders, simply because it was „just not believable.“

In December 2002, during her interview with Miss Jones, Eve responded to Brown’s diss record („Get Off Me“), stating that she was glad she could be „an inspiration“ for Brown’s ghostwriter. Eve also revealed that she had known Brown since 1997 and dubbed her a „wankster“ and a „miserable jealous bitch“. Eve lastly added, „Ain’t my fault [Foxy] been out since ’96 & her bank account look the same. Do you ma. You look weak. Do you.“ In April 2003, during her interview with Wendy Williams, Foxy Brown revealed that she hated Eve and cited her as the prime reason why she broke up with Kurupt because Eve „snitched“ about the alleged affair between her and DMX. Brown later made derogatory comments about Eve throughout the interview, calling the rapper a „poorly dressed nappy headed blond chick“. Brown also added that she was „sick and tired“ of Eve subliminally dissing her and Lil‘ Kim on records because she and Kim „changed the game of hip-hop for female rappers.“ In September 2003, Eve dissed Brown on a record titled „We’re Back“ from former mentor DMX’s album, Grand Champ.

Votorantim Cimentos

Votorantim Cimentos is the largest cement company of Brazil and the eighth largest in the world. The company was founded in 1933 and is headquartered in São Paulo. In February 2010, the Votorantim Cimentos acquired 21.2% of the Portuguese cement company Cimpor. In 2012 the company sold this stake and acquired cement-related assets in Asia, Africa and South America.

The company operates plants in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Spain, United States, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru. Tunisia, Morocco, China, India and Portugal. It owns 50 production units of cement, mortar, lime, limestone and aggregate and 90 concrete centers in Brazil, and 6 production units of cement, 150 production units of aggregates and concrete centers in North America with a total capacity of 57 million tons/year of cement, 12.0 million m³/year of concrete, and 29.0 million tons/year of aggregates.

The company’s main competitors are InterCement, LafargeHolcim, Cemex, Cimentos LIZ among others.

Stepojevac

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Serbie

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Serbie

Stepojevac (en serbe cyrillique : Степојевац) est une localité de Serbie située dans la municipalité de Lazarevac et sur le territoire de la Ville de Belgrade. Au recensement de 2011, elle comptait 2 894 habitants.

Le site de Batašina, sur le territoire de Stepojevac, a permis de mettre au jour les vestiges d’une luxueuse villa rustica romaine ainsi qu’une tombe datée des Ve-VIe siècles ; en raison de son importance, il est inscrit sur la liste des sites archéologiques protégés de la République de Serbie et sur la liste des biens culturels de la Ville de Belgrade.

En 2002, l’âge moyen de la population était de 40,1 ans pour les hommes et 39,9 ans pour les femmes.

En 2002, les Serbes représentaient 98,01 % de la population.

En 2011, l’âge moyen de la population était de 42,2 ans, 41,3 ans pour les hommes et 43,2 ans pour les femmes.

Stepojevac dispose d’une école élémentaire, l’école Vuk Karadžić, qui gère des annexes à Vrbovno et Leskovac. La bibliothèque de l’école est gérée par la bibliothèque municipale Dimitrije Tucović (Gradska biblioteka Dimitrije Tucović).

La ligne 4 du réseau express régional Beovoz, qui mène de Pančevo (au nord) à Valjevo (au sud), en passant par le centre de Belgrade, dessert la gare de Stepojevac.

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Marsh Creek State Park (California)

Marsh Creek State Park, located in East Contra Costa County, California, was named as the newest California State Park in California on January 27, 2012. The newly named park (formerly called the Cowell Ranch/John Marsh State Park) contains 3,659 acres (1,481 ha) and is about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of downtown Brentwood. It is not open to the public as of January 2015. No opening date has been announced.

The park honors California pioneer John Marsh (1799–1856), who was a doctor, rancher, landowner and the first non-Hispanic European to settle in what is now Contra Costa County, California. Marsh was the first medical doctor in California, the first Harvard graduate in the territory, the first to introduce a number of new crops, and one of the most influential men in the establishment of California statehood.

Marsh, a widower, was a native of Massachusetts, who had previously lived in Minnesota, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri and New Mexico before settling in Los Angeles, California. In 1838, he acquired Rancho Los Meganos in northern California. The ranch covered over 80 square miles (21,000 ha), and extended over 8 miles (13 km) to the San Joaquin River, where Marsh’s Landing was built (near present-day Antioch California). The park covers a portion of this former rancho. Marsh reportedly paid $300 in cowhides for the land. The John Marsh House was added to the National Register of Historic Places (Reference Number 71000136) under Criteria A, B and C on October 7, 1971.

Archaeologists have found that Native Americans lived in the East Contra Costa County area at least 7,000 years ago. Some of the groups identified with the area are the Volvone and the Miwoks. Excavations have turned up human remains and other historical items that confirm this. Some burial sites have been identified. The park planners intend to protect these cultural sites that lie within the park boundaries.

A highlight of the park is the home of John Marsh, which was begun in 1853 and completed in 1856, and which has been undergoing extensive renovation for several years. Initially, Marsh lived in a four-room adobe house which had been built on the property for him by local Miwok Indians. Marsh apparently got along well with the Miwoks and had even provided them with free medical care. In return, the tribesmen built the adobe house. After he remarried in 1851, he retained San Francisco architect Thomas Boyd to design a grand new mansion. Many of the features apparently were stipulated by Marsh himself. John’s wife, Abby, had selected the site for the house along Marsh Creek. The new Gothic Revival style house was three stories high and had an observation tower that rose 65 feet (20 m) into the air. Marsh built the tower so that he could see the approach of strangers from a great distance. Rustlers and marauders frequently came to his ranch to steal cattle or steal other valuables. However, the stone tower proved vulnerable to earthquakes. The original tower collapsed from a quake in 1868. It was rebuilt with wood, but the replacement collapsed again after the 1906 quake. Images from the Historical American Building Survey (HABS) collection in the Library of Congress shown here depict the differences in the two structures. This house is the earliest substantial building in Contra Costa County that was not built entirely of adobe.

The Marsh mansion soon became known as the „Stone House“ because the walls were covered with locally-quarried sandstone. Abby died in 1855, before the house was finished, while John was murdered on September 24, 1856, three weeks after he moved into the house. Marsh was the first non-Hispanic white settler to live in the county. The property encompassed by Marsh Creek State Park was part of Rancho Los Meganos, (Los Meganos is a Spanish phrase meaning „sand dunes“), which Marsh acquired in 1838. In 1860, the U. S. Land Commission recognized over 13,000 acres (5,300 ha) as part of the Marsh estate, which was shared by Charles and Alice Marsh. Alice was the daughter of John and Abby. Charles was John’s son by John’s first marriage.

Neither Charles nor Alice lived in the house after the parents died; the building began to suffer from neglect. A series of tenant farmers occupied the house. Reportedly, one occupant complained in 1878 that the house was in bad shape. The ranch was bought by the Balfour-Guthrie Company. The Cowell Company subsequently acquired the house and land. Neither company had any particular use for the house and spent little on maintenance. The south wall collapsed more than 20 years ago, and a part of the west wall collapsed more recently. Cracks suggested that the north wall could fall soon, and that stabilization of the house was a priority, if the house were to be saved. The roof also needed to be replaced. In 1960, Henry Cowell donated the house to Contra Costa County. In 1979, ownership passed to the California State Parks Department.

Nearly one million dollars has been spent on stabilizing the house since 2006. This work was required to keep the sandstone structure from collapsing.

The Marsh house is 36 by 30 feet (11.0 by 9.1 m) in area by 38 feet (12 m) to the ridge of the roof. The roof has four large dormers, so that the third story is full height. The tower is 47 feet (14 m) tall. A one-foot (0.30 m) wide portico surrounds the house on three sides. Full-length French windows allow access from the portico to each room on the first and second floors. The house has an exterior wall covered with buff-colored sandstone. Inside the stone there was a four-inch (100 mm) void, then another wall built of adobe brick. The first floor contained a stair hall that ran from the front door to the rear door, a parlor, dining room, office and kitchen. The parlor is 20 by 35 feet (6.1 by 10.7 m) by 12 feet (3.7 m) high. The second level has the master bedroom located directly above the parlor and accesses to the top level of the portico. There are two other bedrooms and a bath on the second level that access the stair hall. Another stair leads to the third level, which contains three more rooms. A ladder leads from the third floor hall to the tower parapet.

Creation of a visitor center, trailheads, picnic areas, parking, equestrian facilities, campsites and accommodations for special events, such as a farmers market are all under consideration for future development. Restoration of the Stone House will soon begin, largely funded by the California Cultural Historic Endowment and matching donations from the John Marsh Historic Trust. Construction of a replica of Marsh’s original four-room adobe house is also under consideration. The park land contains some historic Native American burial sites. Larry Myers, a representative of the California Native American Heritage Commission, urged state park officials to keep the burial sites off-limits to the public.

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