Ораич-Толич, Дубравка

1 августа 1943(1943-08-01) (73 года)

Славонский Брод, Югославия

Югославия Югославия →
Хорватия Хорватия

литературоведение

Международная отметина имени отца русского футуризма Давида Бурлюка

Дубравка Ораич-Толич (хорв. Dubravka Oraić-Tolić; р. 1 августа 1943, Славонский Брод) — югославский и хорватский литературовед.

Дубравка Ораич-Толич родилась 1 августа 1943 года в Славонском Броде.

В 1962—1966 годах в Загребе и в 1967—1969 годах в Вене изучала философию, русский язык и литературу. Магистерскую диссертацию защитила по пейзажу в произведениях Антуна Густава Матоша, докторскую — по теме цитатности в литературе и культуре.

Преподаёт литературоведение на отделении восточнославянских языков и литератур философского факультета Загребского университета. Была приглашённым профессором в университетах Мюнхена (1992) и Геттингена (2007).

Перевела на хорватский язык роман «Петербург» Андрея Белого, трилогию Валентина Катаева («Трава забвения»), поэмы «Труба Гуль-Муллы» и «Зангези» Велимира Хлебникова.

Поэтические сборники Urlik Amerike и Palindromska apokalisa вышли на английском языке (American Scream; Palindrome Apocalypse. Portland: Ooligan Press, 2005) и были удостоены награды за лучший перевод года со славянских языков. Поэма Palindromnyj apokalipsis опубликована на хорватском и русском языках в книге «Хлебников и авангард».

Книга Muška moderna i ženska postmoderna («Мужской модернизм и женский постмодернизм», Zagreb: Ljevak, 2005) получила приз журнала Vjesnik за лучшую книгу 2006 года. Книга Akademsko pismo: Strategije i tehnike klasične retorike za suvremene studentice i studente («Академическое письмо: Стратегии и техники классической риторики для современных студенток и студентов», Zagreb: Ljevak, 2011) получила приз Хорватской академии наук и искусств 2013 года.

Геннадий Айги † • Наталия Азарова • Валерия Акулова • Владимир Алейников • Маргарита Аль • Анна Альчук † • Хартмут Андручюк • Евгений Арензон • Вилен Барский † • Наталия Башмакофф • Денис Безносов • Лоренс Блинов • Фридрих В. Блок • Михаил Богатырёв • Николай Богомолов • Татьяна Бонч-Осмоловская • Максим Бородин • Дмитрий Булатов • Лео Бутнару • Виллем Вестстейн • Герман Виноградов • Андрей Вознесенский † • Арон Гаал • Режис Гейро • Томаш Гланц • Ойген Гомрингер • Александр Горнон • Виктор Григорьев † • Милан Гюрчинов • Алексей Даен † • Хендрик Джексон • Михаил Евзлин • Виктор Жибуль • Бернхард Замес • Анна Золотарёва • Павел Золотов • Галина Золотова • Виктор Iванiв † • Феликс Филипп Ингольд • Корнелия Ичин • Миливое Йованович † • Юрий Казарин • Томас Кайт • Елена Кацюба • Константин Кедров • Ефтим Клетников • Борис Констриктор • Андрей Коровин • Андрей Крусанов • Сергей Кудрявцев • Анатолий Кудрявицкий • Борис Кудряков † • Илья Кукуй • Алексей Лазарев • Жан-Клод Ланн • Барбара Лённквист • Света Литвак • Игорь Лощилов • Марцио Марцадури † • Массимо Маурицио • Филип Меерсман • Вадим Месяц • Арсен Мирзаев • Татьяна Михайловская • Елизавета Мнацаканова • Никита Нанков • Александр Никитаев • Николай Никифоров-Бурлюк † • Татьяна Никольская • Ры Никонова † • Александр Ницберг • Владимир Новиков • Дубравка Ораич-Толич • Юрий Орлицкий • Александр Очеретянский • Александр Парнис • Дмитрий Пашкин • Вадим Перельмутер • Наталья Перцова † • Адам Поморский • Вадим Рабинович † • Леон Робель • Владимир Руделёв • Алесь Рязанов • Сергей Сигей † • Никита Сироткин • Наталия Слюсарева • Сергей Соловьёв • Виктор Соснора • София Старкина † • Вадим Степанов † • Евгений Степанов • Юрий Степанов † • Ондрей Стефанко † • Сергей Сухопаров • Алексей Торхов • Ежи Фарыно • Наталья Фатеева • Александр Федулов • Владимир Фещенко • Александр Флакер † • Евгений В. Харитонов • Атнер Хузангай • Пётр Чейгин • Варвара Черковская • Сергей Чибисов • Алексей Шепелёв • Валерий Шерстяной • Борис Шифрин • Энрика Шмидт • Румен Шомов • Хенрике Шталь • Владимир Эрль • Алексей Юдин • Джеральд Янечек •

Хейворт, Рита

Margarita Carmen Cansino

17 октября 1918(1918-10-17)

Бруклин, Нью-Йорк, США

14 мая 1987(1987-05-14) (68 лет)

Нью-Йорк, США

 США

актриса, танцовщица

1926—1972

ID 0000028

Ри́та Хе́йворт (англ. Rita Hayworth, 17 октября 1918 — 14 мая 1987) — американская киноактриса и танцовщица, одна из наиболее знаменитых звёзд Голливуда 1940-х годов.

Рита Хейворт (настоящее имя — Маргари́та Кáрмен Канси́но, англ. Margarita Carmen Cansino) родилась в семье известного исполнителя испанских танцев фламенко, выходца из Севильи Эдуардо Кансино и полуирландки-полуангличанки Волги Хейворт, хористки из шоу Флоренза Зигфельда (см.“Девушки Зигфельда“). С 12 лет начала выступать со своим отцом в ночных клубах и в шоу испанских танцев. В 1935 году Рита Хейворт привлекла внимание студии 20th Century Fox и начала сниматься в кино.

Поначалу роли Риты были не слишком заметными. Первая значительная работа — в фильме Ховарда Хоукса «Только у ангелов есть крылья» (1939), где она выступает рядом с такими звёздами, как Кэри Грант и Джин Артур. Последовавшие позже «Земляничная блондинка» (1941) режиссёра Рауля Уолша, «Кровь и песок» (1941) Рубена Мамуляна, «Девушка с обложки» Чарльза Видора (1944) делают Риту Хейворт известной и популярной. В музыкальных комедиях «Никогда не стать богаче» (1941) и «Ты никогда не была восхитительнее», где Хейворт снимается в паре со знаменитым Фредом Астером, кинозрители смогли увидеть актрису во всём её блеске. Здесь Рите пригодилось танцевальное мастерство, которому она училась всю свою жизнь. Вершиной карьеры Хейворт стала любовная мелодрама «Джильда» Чарльза Видора (1946), сделавшая её непререкаемой богиней голливудского Олимпа, эротическим идолом Америки.

Хейворт снималась также в фильмах Джорджа Кьюкора, Орсона Уэллса, Джозефа Манкевича, Жоржа Лотнера и других известных режиссёров. Женское обаяние и красота сделали Риту Хейворт одной из самых популярных кинозвёзд своего времени, фильмы с её участием имели огромный успех не только в США, но и в Европе. Несмотря на то, что в кинокарьере актрисы (в период 1937—1957 годов) было много «поющих» ролей, её пение как правило дублировалось.

Хейворт была неоднократно замужем, среди её мужей — режиссёр Орсон Уэллс, от которого у неё была дочь Ребекка. Рита сыграла в фильме Уэллса «Леди из Шанхая» главную роль, ради которой ей пришлось остричь свои длинные рыжие волосы и превратиться в блондинку. Третьим мужем Хейворт был принц Али Хан, бывший в то время вице-президентом Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН, от которого у неё родилась вторая дочь, принцесса Ясмин Хан.

Начавшиеся у Хейворт в 1970-х годах проблемы с памятью врачи первоначально связывали с пристрастием к алкоголю и не сразу смогли диагностировать болезнь Альцгеймера. Трудности с запоминанием ролей привели к постепенному спаду в карьере и, в конечном счёте, к уходу из кино. В июле 1981 года состояние Хейворт заметно ухудшилось, и Верховный суд Лос-Анджелеса, посчитав, что актриса уже не может сама о себе заботиться, определил её под опеку дочери Ясмин, которая ухаживала за ней в последние годы жизни, а в мае 1987 года Рита Хейворт скончалась в своей квартире на Манхэттене.

Рита Хейворт включена в список 100 величайших звёзд кино по версии Американского института киноискусства.

Несмотря на участие более чем в 60 фильмах на протяжении 37 лет, в том числе исполнение главных ролей в известнейших, признанных классическими фильмах наподобие «Джильды», Рита Хейворт никогда не номинировалась на «Оскар».

В дуэте с Джоном Уэйном Хейворт сыграла в фильме «Мир цирка» (1964), за роль в котором номинировалась на «Золотой Глобус» — как Лучшая актриса в фильме-драме. Это единственная зафиксированная номинация за всю её карьеру.

В 1977 году Рита Хейворт становится лауреатом премии «Наследие национального экрана» (National Screen Heritage Award)

Relaciones entre España y El Salvador

Las relaciones El Salvador-España son las relaciones exteriores entre España y El Salvador. El Salvador tiene una embajada en Madrid dos consulados generales en Madrid y Barcelona, y seis consulados honorarios en Coruña, Palma de Mallorca, San Sebastián, Sevilla, Valencia y Zaragoza. España tiene una embajada en San Salvador.

El 31 de mayo de 1522 el español Andrés Niño, a la cabeza de una expedición, desembarcó en la isla de Meanguera en el (golfo de Fonseca); y posteriormente descubrió la bahía de Jiquilisco y la desembocadura del río Lempa. Descubriendo de esta manera el territorio salvadoreño.

En junio de 1524, Pedro de Alvarado salió de la población de Iximché en el actual territorio de Guatemala para iniciar el proceso de conquista de Cuscatlán. Bajo su mando estaban unos 250 soldados españoles y unos 6,000 indígenas aliados, principalmente tlaxcaltecas. Luego de pasar por los poblados de Itzcuintepec, Atiepac, Tacuilula, Taxisco, Guazacapán, Chiquimulilla, Tzinacaután, Naucintlán y Paxco, llegó a las riberas occidentales del río Paz, y lo cruzó para internarse en los territorios pipiles.

A finales de 1524 o principios de 1525 Pedrarias Dávila (conquistador de Panamá y Nicaragua) envió a Francisco Hernández de Córdoba a Honduras y este a su vez envió a Hernando de Soto hacia Olancho pasando por Nequepio (nombre con el que los indígenas Chorotegas conocían al Señorío de Cuzcatlán), ante esto Pedro de Alvarado envió a un grupo de hombres liderados por Gonzalo de Alvarado para fundar la villa de San Salvador; la villa de San Salvador fue fundada por Diego de Holguin y Gonzalo de Alvarado el 1 de abril de 1525 en un lugar desconocido. En 1526 estalló una sublevación indígena que obligó a abandonar la villa.

En los años que siguieron a la conquista, los españoles introdujeron animales y cultivos europeos en el territorio de El Salvador. Hubo un gran esfuerzo para inculcar la cultura y la religión de los conquistadores a los indígenas. Las órdenes religiosas, en especial los franciscanos y dominicos, colaboraron con el Imperio español en el proceso de evangelización. Se estableció el sistema de la encomienda, para controlar a la población nativa. Este sistema fue la recompensa que recibió cada conquistador por su servicio a la Corona.

Durante el período colonial, se produjo un proceso de mestizaje entre indígenas, negros y españoles. Para el momento de la Independencia, los mestizos constituían la mayor parte de la población del territorio.

Desde las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII, en diversas regiones de América Latina, tuvieron lugar varias rebeliones en contra del dominio español, algunas más exitosas que otras. En Centroamérica, el sentimiento de independencia comenzó a crecer entre los criollos, que influidos por las ideas liberales de la Ilustración, veían en el proceso de independencia de los Estados Unidos y en la Revolución francesa un ejemplo a seguir. Se sabe que líderes del movimiento independentista centroamericano como José Matías Delgado, José Simeón Cañas y José Cecilio del Valle, eran conocedores de las ideas de libertad individual e igualdad ante la ley propugnadas por la Ilustración.

En la primera década del siglo XIX, las autoridades coloniales españolas realizaron una serie de medidas fiscales y económicas impopulares, como el aumento de tributos y la consolidación de deudas estatales, para financiar las guerras europeas de la Corona española. Estas medidas acrecentaron el sentimiento de independencia entre los criollos.

Los historiadores consideran que el fenómeno que sirvió como detonante al proceso de independencia de Centroamérica, fue la Invasión Napoleónica a España en 1808 que significó el colapso temporal de la autoridad real.

En el período de 1808 a 1814, se produjeron varios importantes alzamientos en el territorio de la Intendencia de San Salvador.

En mayo de 1814, Fernando VII regresó a España como rey, e inmediatamente restableció el absolutismo, derogando la Constitución de Cádiz. Los efectos de las medidas reales se hicieron sentir en Centroamérica, donde el Capitán General de Guatemala, José de Bustamante y Guerra, desató una persecución en contra de los independentistas y los defensores de las ideas liberales, que se prolongaría hasta la destitución de Bustamante en 1817.

En 1820, la Revolución de Riego, en España, restableció la vigencia de la Constitución de Cádiz. El Capitán General de Guatemala, Carlos Urrutia, juró la Constitución en julio de ese año y poco después se convocó a elecciones para elegir ayuntamientos y diputaciones provinciales, además de permitirse la libertad de prensa en el territorio del Reino de Guatemala. Aprovechando el ambiente de libertad, comenzaron a publicarse en Guatemala, dos periódicos nuevos: El Editor Constitucional bajo la dirección del guatemalteco Pedro Molina, que defendía posiciones muy liberales, y El Amigo de la Patria dirigido por el hondureño José Cecilio del Valle, que defendía posiciones más conservadoras. En junio de 1821, el Capitán General Urrutia fue sustituido por Gabino Gaínza. En agosto llegaron a Centroamérica las noticias de la Independencia de México, bajo los términos establecidos en el Plan de Iguala de Agustín de Iturbide. Ante esta nueva realidad, Gaínza convocó a la reunión de notables del 15 de septiembre.

El 15 de septiembre de 1821, en una reunión en la Ciudad de Guatemala, los representantes de las provincias centroamericanas declararon su independencia de España y conformaron una Junta Gubernativa provisional, presidida por el antiguo Capitán General español, Gabino Gaínza. La noticia de la independencia llegó a San Salvador el 21 de septiembre.

La relación bilateral goza de una excelente salud y se ha consolidado hasta convertirse en estratégica para ambas naciones, considerando el Gobierno de El Salvador a España como un amigo leal y solidario. España ha sido uno de los principales miembros del Grupo de Amigos apoyando firmemente la elaboración de la Estrategia de Seguridad. Adicionalmente, España viene apoyando muy significativamente desde 2005 la Unidad de Seguridad Democrática del SICA a través del Fondo España-SICA. La buena relación bilateral también se manifiesta en foros internacionales donde El Salvador y España se han apoyado mutuamente en múltiples candidaturas a Naciones Unidas. En el ámbito de la defensa, sigue vigente el acuerdo firmado en junio de 2008 entre los Ministerios de Defensa de El Salvador y de España, mediante el cual soldados salvadoreños se integran en el contingente español en la misión de Naciones Unidas en Líbano, FINUL.

Hasta la entrada en vigor del nuevo Acuerdo de Asociación, el marco que sustentaba las relaciones comerciales entre la Unión Europea y El Salvador se recoge en el Acuerdo Marco de Cooperación de 1993 entre la UE y Centroamérica, por el que ambas Partes se otorgan el trato de Nación Más Favorecida (NMF).

Posteriormente, la UE concedió a El Salvador acceso preferencial al mercado comunitario mediante la aplicación del Sistema de Preferencias Generalizadas (SPG). Dentro del SPG, El Salvador era beneficiario del régimen especial de estímulo del desarrollo sostenible y la gobernanza (SPG+) por el que la UE concedía preferencias arancelarias para todos los productos industriales y un amplio grupo de productos agrícolas y pesqueros a aquellos países vulnerables que ratificaran y aplicaran efectivamente una serie de convenios internacionales de derechos humanos, de los trabajadores, medioambientales y de buena gobernanza.

Convenios que El Salvador ratificó y aplicó. A partir del 1 de octubre de 2013, el Sistema SPG+ ha sido sustituido por el Acuerdo de Asociación UE-Centroamérica. Así mismo, desde 1995 está en vigor un Acuerdo para la Promoción y Protección Recíproca de las Inversiones (APPRI). También cabe destacar el Convenio para evitar la doble imposición firmado con El Salvador y que entró en vigor el 1 de enero de 2010.

La cooperación española se instaló en El Salvador después del terremoto de 1986 y de manera oficial desde 1987 con la firma del primer Convenio Básico de Cooperación que fue renovado en octubre 2008.

El Salvador se ubica entre los países de desarrollo humano medio, según el Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano de 2013, El Salvador se encuentra en el número 107 de un total de 182 países. A pesar de ello persisten importantes bolsas de pobreza (47% de pobreza total y 19,2% de pobreza extrema) concentradas, sobre todo, en el área rural, confiriéndole al país un perfil de desarrollo altamente inequitativo y que enfrenta grandes desigualdades en el acceso a los servicios y los recursos.

España es el tercer donante en El Salvador detrás de los Estados Unidos y de la Unión Europea, seguidos por Japón. Cabe destacar la ayuda de otros países europeos como Alemania o Luxemburgo. Al ser un país de desarrollo medio, no recibe el volumen de ayuda que cabría esperar para hacer frente a sus grandes bolsas de pobreza y desigualdad social.

Ajmal Kasab

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Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab (en ourdou : محمد اجمل امیر قصاب), né le à Faridkot (Pendjab, Pakistan) et pendu le à la prison de Yerwada à Pune (Maharashtra, Inde), est un terroriste pakistanais, membre du groupe islamiste armé Lashkar-e-Toiba, qui a participé aux attaques de novembre 2008 à Bombay qui avaient fait 179 morts. Kasab seul assaillant capturé vivant par la police, fut jugé et condamné à mort le .

Zohra Al Fassiya

Zohra Al Fassiya (Arabic: زهرة الفاسية‎‎, Hebrew: זוהרה אלפסיה‎‎) was a Moroccan singer and poet. Considered as the queen of the melhoun and gharnati genres, and one of the pioneers of modern Arabic music, she was the first female recording artist in Morocco, and her songs were widely celebrated throughout Morocco and Algeria, where she collaborated with lyricists and musicians from Oran and Tlemcen. Although her songs were mostly secular in nature (being the popular music of the time in Morocco), many of the melodies have later been modified to be fit religious Jewish liturgical songs (called piyyutim) as well.

Born in Sefrou, near Fez, at the feet of the mountains of Atlas in a modest Moroccan Jewish family, she started to sing at a very early age when she performed religious songs at her synagogue. During her youth, she started to sing in coffee houses and cabarets near towns and in Casablanca. Her songs were mostly secular gharanti songs (Andalusian Arabic songs originally from Granada, Spain, and very popular among the Muslims of Andalusian background and Moroccan and Algerian Jews in the 19th century), as well as Malhun, which are long Moroccan poems.

In the 40’s, she had her own orchestra and started to write her own songs. She was heavily aired on radio stations, both in Morocco and Algeria, and was extremely well known and loved by the public. Al Fassiya’s Jewish identity was not considered to be problematic in Morocco during the height of her fame. In fact, the King of Morocco, Mohammed V, was so impressed by her voice that he invited her to sing at his court. Al Fassiya also worked with other artists such as Samy Elmaghribi, who wrote some of her songs. She released more than 17 albums between the years 1947-1957 .

In 1962, following many fellow Mizrahi Jews who fled Arab countries due to mounting persecution following the establishment of the State of Israel, Al Fassiya immigrated to Israel. However, despite her superstar status in Morocco and North Africa, Al Fassiya’s talent went unrecognized in Israel outside of the Moroccan immigrant community, as the state-run media and cultural institutions preferred to promote Western sounding music. As with many Mizrahi / Sephardi Jewish immigrants (Jews from Arab and Islamic countries), Al Fassiya faced discrimination in Israel, and she came to live in miserable and lonely conditions in Ashkelon. Despite this humiliating fate, Al Fassiya was often invited to sing at private celebrations (such as weddings) in the Moroccan community in Israel. Israeli-Moroccan poet Erez Biton, who visited her in Ashkelon, was so moved by her fate that he dedicated a poem to her story; this poem has now been added to the national school curriculum in Israel, and serves as a centrepiece in discussion of the state’s harsh Westernization policies in the 20th Century.

In her last years, Zohra Al Fassiya lived in a nursing home in Ashkelon. She died at age 89 in 1994 and was buried there.

Jacobus Tollius

Jacobus of Jakob Tollius (Rhenen, 1633 – Utrecht, 1696) was de zoon van Johannes Tollius (1598-1656) en diens tweede vrouw Judith Smit. Hij was de jongere halfbroer van Alexander Tollius en Cornelius Tollius, die beiden hoogleraar aan de Universiteit van Harderwijk werden.

Jacobus studeerde in Harderwijk letteren en geneeskunde. Hij promoveerde in de geneeskunde. Hij was een tijdlang secretaris van de beroemde filoloog Nicolaas Heinsius. In 1665 werd hij rector van de Latijnse school in Gouda, maar hij wekte veel wrevel en werd wegens zijn vrijzinnige opvattingen in 1672 weggestuurd. Daarna was hij een tijdlang rector van de Latijnse school in Leiden en werd hij vervolgens hoogleraar in de historie en de welsprekendheid in Duisburg. Hij nam echter al vrij snel ontslag en zwierf vanaf 1687 lang door Europa, vooral door Duitsland en Italië. Hij stierf in diepe ellende in Utrecht. De brieven waarin hij zijn reizen beschreef werden na zijn dood door Henricus Christianus Henninius, zijn opvolger aan de universiteit van Duisburg, uitgegeven: Epistolae itinerariae (Amsterdam 1700).

Tollius was de uitgever van een aantal werken van klassieke auteurs, m.n. Ausonius en Pseudo-Longinus. Hij was ook een alchemist en schreef een aantal boeken over de alchemie.

Château du Saussay

The château du Saussay is a French château that forms part of the commune of Ballancourt-sur-Essonne in the department of Essonne. It is situated in the valley of the river Essonne between Corbeil and La Ferté-Alais, on the territory of an old Templar commandery. It is built on the ruins of a 15th-century feudal castle, and is a rare collection of two 18th-century châteaux facing each other at the entrance to a Romantic park surrounded by water. Inside, their reception rooms evoke the lives of their inhabitants.

The property of Olivier Le Daim, barber to the French kings from Louis XI to Louis XV, the château was burned by the Spanish during the Wars of Religion.

The owner obtained permission from Henry IV by letters patent to surround the château with water. He then rebuilt the château in the brick-and-stone style. The property of Me de Gaumont, a member of parliament, it was handed down by the women of the Bragelongne family, by Canclaux and finally Colbert at the start of the 19th century.

In 1735 a pavilion – identical in appearance to the original château – was built facing it, to give the appearance (surviving to this day) of two châteaux opening onto a park. Just before the French Revolution, the entry building and raised bridge were demolished and replaced with two elegant pavilions in the style of the architect Nicolas Ledoux (end of the 18th century). In the 19th century the Colberts doubled the size of the main pavilion and endowed the château with a magnificent library.

At the start of the 20th century, the château passed to the Bourbon Busset family, and the park was redesigned by the great landscape artist Achille Duchêne, joining the charm of parks in the English style with classical harmony of gardens in the French style. His redesigned park was made up of three perspectives, several water features, and lawns framed with topiary or planted with rare trees. The académicien Jacques de Bourbon Busset lived in this château, where his children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren still live today.

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American Left

The American Left has consisted of a broad range of individuals and groups that have sought fundamental egalitarian changes in the economic, political, and cultural institutions of the United States. Despite its apparent weakness as a political movement, leftist activists in the United States have been instrumental in advancing progressive social change on issues such as labor and civil rights, civil liberties, peace, feminism, LGBT rights, minimum wage and environmentalism, as well as providing critiques of capitalism.

Many indigenous tribes in North America practiced what Marxists would later call primitive communism, meaning they practiced economic cooperation among the members of their tribes.

The first European socialists to arrive in North America were a Christian sect known as Labadists, who founded the commune of Bohemia Manor in 1683, about 60 miles west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Their communal way of life was based on the communal practices of the apostles and early Christians.

The first secular American socialists were German Marxist immigrants who arrived following the 1848 revolutions, also known as Forty-Eighters. Joseph Weydemeyer, a German colleague of Karl Marx who sought refuge in New York in 1851, following the 1848 revolutions, established the first Marxist journal in the U.S., called Die Revolution. It folded after two issues. in 1852 he established the Proletarierbund, which would become the American Workers‘ League, the first Marxist organization in the U.S. But it too was short-lived, having failed to attract a native English-speaking membership.

In 1866, William H. Sylvis formed the National Labor Union (NLU). Frederich Albert Sorge, a German who had found refuge in New York following the 1848 revolutions, took Local No. 5 of the NLU into the First International as Section One in the U.S. By 1872, there were 22 sections, which were able to hold a convention in New York. The General Council of the International moved to New York with Sorge as General Secretary, but following internal conflict it dissolved in 1876.

A larger wave of German immigrants followed in the 1870s and 1880s, which included social democratic followers of Ferdinand Lasalle. Lasalle believed that state aid through political action was the road to revolution and was opposed to trade unionism which he saw as futile, believing that according to the Iron Law of Wages employers would only pay subsistence wages. The Lasalleans formed the Social Democratic Party of North America in 1874 and both Marxists and Lasalleans formed the Workingmen’s Party of the United States in 1876. When the Lasalleans gained control in 1877, they changed the name to the Socialist Labor Party of North America (SLP). However many socialists abandoned political action altogether and moved to trade unionism. Two former socialists, Adolph Strasser and Samuel Gompers, formed the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886.

Anarchists split from the Socialist Labor Party to form the Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1881. By 1885 they had 7,000 members, double the membership of the SLP. They were inspired by the International Anarchist Congress of 1881 in London. There were two federations in the United States that pledged adherence to the International. A convention of immigrant anarchists in Chicago formed the International Working People’s Association (Black International), while a group of Native Americans in San Francisco formed the International Workingmen’s Association (Red International). Following a violent demonstration at Haymarket in Chicago in 1886, public opinion turned against anarchism. While very little violence could be attributed to anarchists, the attempted murder of a financier by an anarchist in 1892 and the 1901 assassination of the American president, William McKinley, by a professed anarchist led to the ending of political asylum for anarchists in 1903. In 1919, following the Palmer raids, anarchists were imprisoned and many, including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, were deported. Yet anarchism again reached great public notice with the trial of the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti, who would be executed in 1927.

Daniel De Leon, who became leader of the SLP in 1890, took it in a Marxist direction. Eugene Debs, who had been an organizer for the American Railway Union formed the rival Social Democratic Party in 1898. Members of the SLP, led by Morris Hillquit and opposed to the De Leon’s domineering personal rule and his anti-AFL trade union policy joined with the Social Democrats to form the Socialist Party of America (SPA).

In 1905 a convention of socialists, anarchists and trade unionists disenchanted with the bureaucracy and craft unionism of the AFL, founded the rival Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), led by such figures as William D. „Big Bill“ Haywood, Helen Keller, De Leon and Debs.

The organizers of the IWW disagreed on whether electoral politics could be employed to liberate the working class. Debs left the IWW in 1906, and De Leon was expelled in 1908, forming a rival „Chicago IWW“ that was closely linked to the SLP. The (Minneapolis) IWW’s ideology evolved into anarcho-syndicalism, or „revolutionary industrial unionism“, and avoided electoral political activity altogether. It was successful organizing unskilled migratory workers in the lumber, agriculture, and construction trades in the Western states and immigrant textile workers in the Eastern states and occasionally accepted violence as part of industrial action.

The SPA was divided between reformers who believed that socialism could be achieved through gradual reform of capitalism and revolutionaries who thought that socialism could only develop after capitalism was overthrown, but the party steered a center path between the two. The SPA achieved the peak of its success by 1912, when its presidential candidate received 5.9% of the popular vote. The first Socialist congressman, Victor Berger, had been elected in 1910. By the beginning of 1912, there were 1,039 Socialist officeholders, including 56 mayors, 305 aldermen and councilmen, 22 police officials, and some state legislators. Milwaukee, Berkeley, Butte, Schenectady, and Flint were run by Socialists. A Socialist challenger to Gompers took one third of the vote in a challenge for leadership of the AFL. The SPA had 5 English and 8 foreign-language daily newspapers, 262 English and 36 foreign-language weeklies, and 10 English and 2 foreign-language monthlies.

American entry into the First World War in 1917 led to a patriotic hysteria aimed against Germans, immigrants, African Americans, class-conscious workers, and Socialists, and the ensuing Espionage Act and Sedition Act were used against them. The government harassed Socialist newspapers, the post office denied the SP use of the mails, and antiwar militants were arrested. Soon Debs and more than sixty IWW leaders were charged under the acts.

In 1919, John Reed, Benjamin Gitlow and other Socialists formed the Communist Labor Party of America, while Socialist foreign sections led by Charles Ruthenberg formed the Communist Party. These two groups would be combined as the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA). The Communists organized the Trade Union Unity League to compete with the AFL and claimed to represent 50,000 workers.

In 1928, following divisions inside the Soviet Union, Jay Lovestone, who had replaced Ruthenberg as general secretary of the CPUSA following his death, joined with William Z. Foster to expel Foster’s former allies, James P. Cannon and Max Shachtman, who were followers of Leon Trotsky. Following another Soviet factional dispute, Lovestone and Gitlow were expelled, and Earl Browder became party leader.

Cannon, Shachtman, and Martin Abern then set up the Trotskyist Communist League of America, and recruited members from the CPUSA. The League then merged with A. J. Muste’s American Workers Party in 1934, forming the Workers Party. New members included James Burnham and Sidney Hook.

By the 1930s the Socialist Party was deeply divided between an Old Guard, led by Hillquit, and younger Militants, who were more sympathetic to the Soviet Union, led by Norman Thomas. The Old Guard left the party to form the Social Democratic Federation. Following talks between the Workers Party and the Socialists, members of the Workers Party joined the Socialists in 1936. Once inside they operated as a separate faction. The Trotskyists were expelled from the Socialist Party the following year, and set up the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) and the youth wing of the Socialists, the Young People’s Socialist League (YPSL) joined them. Shachtman and others were expelled from the SWP in 1940 over their position on the Soviet Union and set up the Workers Party. Within months many members of the new party, including Burnham, had left. The Workers Party was renamed the Independent Socialist League (ISL) in 1949 and ceased being a political party.

Some members of the Old Guard formed the American Labor Party (ALP) in New York State, with support from the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The right wing of this party broke away in 1944 to form the Liberal Party of New York. In the 1936, 1940 and 1944 elections the ALP received 274,000, 417,000, and 496,000 votes in New York State, while the Liberals received 329,000 votes in 1944.

In 1958 the Socialist Party welcomed former members of the Independent Socialist League, which before its 1956 dissolution had been led by Max Shachtman. Shachtman had developed a Marxist critique of Soviet communism as „bureaucratic collectivism“, a new form of class society that was more oppressive than any form of capitalism. Shachtman’s theory was similar to that of many dissidents and refugees from Communism, such as the theory of the „New Class“ proposed by Yugoslavian dissident Milovan Đilas (Djilas). Shachtman’s ISL had attracted youth like Irving Howe, Michael Harrington, Tom Kahn, and Rachelle Horowitz. The YPSL was dissolved, but the party formed a new youth group under the same name.

Kahn and Horowitz, along with Norman Hill, helped Bayard Rustin with the Civil Rights Movement. Rustin had helped to spread pacificism and non-violence to leaders of the civil rights movement, like Martin Luther King. Rustin’s circle and A. Philip Randolph organized the 1963 March on Washington, where Martin Luther King delivered his I Have A Dream speech.

Michael Harrington soon became the most visible socialist in the United States when his The Other America became a best seller, following a long and laudatory New Yorker review by Dwight Macdonald. Harrington and other socialists were called to Washington, D.C., to assist the Kennedy Administration and then the Johnson Administration’s War on Poverty and Great Society.

Shachtman, Michael Harrington, Kahn, and Rustin argued advocated a political strategy called „realignment,“ that prioritized strengthening labor unions and other progressive organizations that were already active in the Democratic Party. Contributing to the day-to-day struggles of the civil-rights movement and labor unions had gained socialists credibility and influence, and had helped to push politicians in the Democratic Party towards „social-liberal“ or social-democratic positions, at least on civil rights and the War on Poverty.

Harrington, Kahn, and Horowitz were officers and staff-persons of the League for Industrial Democracy (LID), which helped to start the New Left Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The three LID officers clashed with the less experienced activists of SDS, like Tom Hayden, when the latter’s Port Huron Statement criticized socialist and liberal opposition to communism and criticized the labor movement while promoting students as agents of social change.LID and SDS split in 1965, when SDS voted to remove from its constitution the „exclusion clause“ that prohibited membership by communists: The SDS exclusion clause had barred „advocates of or apologists for“ „totalitarianism“. The clause’s removal effectively invited „disciplined cadre“ to attempt to „take over or paralyze“ SDS, as had occurred to mass organizations in the thirties. Afterwords, Marxism Leninism, particularly the Progressive Labor Party, helped to write „the death sentence“ for SDS, which nonetheless had over 100 thousand members at its peak.

In 1972, the Socialist Party voted to rename itself as Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA) by a vote of 73 to 34 at its December Convention; its National Chairmen were Bayard Rustin, a peace and civil-rights leader, and Charles S. Zimmerman, an officer of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU). In 1973, Michael Harrington resigned from SDUSA and founded the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC), which attracted many of his followers from the former Socialist Party. The same year, David McReynolds and others from the pacifist and immediate-withdrawal wing of the former Socialist Party formed the Socialist Party, USA.

When the SPA became SDUSA, the majority had 22 of 33 votes on the (January 1973) national committee of SDUSA. Two minority caucuses of SDUSA became associated with two other socialist organizations, each of which was founded later in 1973. Many members of Michael Harrington’s („Coalition“) caucus, with 8 of 33 seats on the 1973 SDUSA national committee, joined Harrington’s DSOC. Many members of the Debs caucus, with 2 of 33 seats on SDUSA’s 1973 national committee, joined the Socialist Party of the United States (SPUSA).

From 1979–1989, SDUSA members like Tom Kahn organized the AFL–CIO’s fundraising of 300 thousand dollars, which bought printing presses and other supplies requested by Solidarnosc (Solidarity), the independent labor-union of Poland. SDUSA members helped form a bipartisan coalition (of the Democratic and Republican parties) to support the founding of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), whose first President was Carl Gershman. The NED publicly allocated US$4 million of public aid to Solidarity through 1989.

In the 1990s, anarchists attempted to organize across North America around Love and Rage, which drew several hundred activists. By 1997 anarchist organizations began to proliferate. One successful anarchist movement was Food not Bombs, that distributed free vegetarian meals. Anarchists received significant media coverage for their disruption of the 1999 World Trade Organization conference, called the Battle in Seattle, where the Direct Action Network was organized. Most organizations were short-lived and anarchism went into decline following a reaction by the authorities that was increased after the September 11 attacks in 2001.

Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist who runs as an independent, won his first election as mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 1981 and was re-elected for three additional terms. He then represented Vermont in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1991 until 2007, and was subsequently elected U.S. Senator for Vermont in 2007, a position which he still holds.

In the 2000 presidential election, Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke received 2,882,000 votes or 2.74% of the popular vote on the Green Party ticket.

Filmmaker Michael Moore directed a series of popular movies examining the United States and its government policy from a left perspective, including Bowling for Columbine, Sicko, Capitalism: A Love Story and Fahrenheit 9/11, which was the top grossing documentary film of all time.

In 2011, Occupy Wall Street protests demanding accountability for the financial crisis of 2007 and against inequality started in Manhattan, New York and soon spread to other cities around the country, becoming known more broadly as the Occupy Movement.

Kshama Sawant was elected to the Seattle City Council as an openly socialist candidate in 2013.

Academic scholars have long studied the reasons why no viable socialist parties have emerged in the United States. Some writers ascribe this to the failures of socialist organization and leadership, some to the incompatibility of socialism and American values, and others to the limitations imposed by the American Constitution. Lenin and Trotsky were particularly concerned because it challenged core Marxist beliefs, that the most advanced industrial country would provide a model for the future of less developed nations. If socialism represented the future, then it should be strongest in the United States.

Although Working Men’s Parties were founded in the 1820s and 1830s in the United States, they advocated equality of opportunity, universal education and improved working conditions, not socialism, collective ownership or equality of outcome, and disappeared after their goals were taken up by Jacksonian democracy. Gompers, the leader of the AFL thought that workers must rely on themselves because any rights provided by government could be revoked. Economic unrest in the 1890s was represented by populism. Although it used anti-capitalist rhetoric, it represented the views of small farmers who wanted to protect their own private property, not a call for collectivism, socialism, or communism. Progressives in the early 20th century criticized the way capitalism had developed but were essentially middle class and reformist. However both populism and progressivism steered some people to left-wing politics. Many popular writers of the progressive period were in fact left-wing. But even the New Left relied on radical democratic traditions rather than left-wing ideology.

Engels thought that the lack of a feudal past was the reason for the American working class holding middle-class values. Writing at a time when American industry was developing quickly towards the mass-production system known as Fordism, Max Weber and Antonio Gramsci saw individualism and laissez-faire liberalism as core shared American beliefs. According to the historian David DeLeon, American radicalism, unlike social democracy, Fabianism, and communism, was rooted in libertarianism and syndicalism and opposed to centralized power and collectivism.

The character of the American political system, which is hostile toward third parties has also been presented as a reason for the absence of a strong socialist party in the United States.

Political repression has also contributed to the weakness of the left in the United States. Many cities had red squads to monitor and disrupt leftist groups in response to labor unrest such as the Haymarket Riot. During World War II, the Smith Act made membership in revolutionary groups illegal. After the war, Senator Joseph McCarthy used the Smith Act to launch a crusade to purge communists from government and the media. In the 1960s the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s COINTELPRO program monitored, infiltrated, disrupted and discredited radical groups in the U.S. In 2008, Maryland police were revealed to have added the names and personal information of death penalty opponents and anti-war protesters to a database which was intended to be used for tracking terrorists.

American Marxist groups have differed according to their visions of communism and their strategies for achieving socialism.

Established in 1919, the Communist Party USA (CP) claimed a membership of 100,000 in 1939 and maintained a membership over 50,000 until the 1950s. However, the 1956 invasion of Hungary, McCarthyism and investigations by the House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC) contributed to its steady decline despite a brief increase in membership from the mid-1960s. Its estimated membership in 1996 was between 4,000 and 5,000. From the 1940s the FBI attempted to disrupt the CP, including through its Counter‐Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO).

Several Communist front organizations founded in the 1950s continued to operate at least into the 1990s, notably the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, the American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born, the Labor Research Association, the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, and the U.S. Peace Council. Other groups with less direct links to the CP include the National Lawyers Guild, the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and the Center for Constitutional Rights. Many leading members of the New Left, including some members of the Weather Underground and the May 19th Communist Organization were members of the National Lawyers Guild. However, CP attempts to influence the New Left were mostly unsuccessful. The CP attracted media attention in the 1970s with the membership of the high profile activist, Angela Davis.

The CP publishes the People’s World and Political Affairs. Beginning 1988, the CP stopped running candidates for President of the United States. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, it was found that the Soviet Union had provided funding to the CP throughout its history. The CP had always supported the positions of the Soviet Union.

Because of the continued slip into an ideology of social democracy that began after the death of CPUSA National Chair Gus Hall, dissident groups began to form around the country that were opposed to the increased pro-capitalist policies of the CPUSA National Committee. There was a fear among members that the CP was on the road to liquidation as a political party. There were several telltale signs that this was happening. The new National Chairman of the CP, Sam Webb began exploring ways to fund the party which suffered a great loss of financial assistance when Mikail Gorbachev assumed leadership of the CP of the Soviet Union. The party began to invest in real estate around the country and used party funds to refurbish its headquarters in New York. The CP leased out several floors of their headquarters to local businesses such as Wix, a website design company. They also leased out the first floor to an art supply company, closing the bookshop of International Publishers, the CP publishing company. Currently, there are no CP bookstores around the country. The CP then made the decision not to print its weekly newspaper, the People’s Weekly World. The paper is only available on line as of this date. The party’s online theoretical journal, Political Affairs, was also discontinued. Currently the CP does not have an organizing department. Dues books have been continued. Everything „Leninist“ has been dropped from the policy and program of the party. No attempt has been made to establish ties with the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) which is the largest socialist-communist trade union federation in the world.

At its 30th Convention in June 2014, the CPUSA dropped Marxism–Leninism from its revised Constitution. While the group continues to uphold Marx, Engels and Lenin in its constitution, its official ideology is now scientific socialism.

Founded in 1876, the Socialist Labor Party (SLP) was a reformist party but adopted the theories of Karl Marx and Daniel De Leon in 1900, leading to the defection of reformers to the new Socialist Party of America (SPA). It contested elections, including every election for President of the United States from 1892 to 1976. Some of its prominent members included Jack London and James Connolly. By 2009 it had lost its premises and ceased publishing its newspaper, The People.

In 1970, a group of dissidents left the SLP to form Socialist Reconstruction. Socialist Reconstruction then expelled some of its dissidents, who formed the Socialist Forum Group.

Marxism–Leninism has been advocated and practiced by American communists of many kinds, including pro-Soviet, Trotskyist, Maoist, or independent.

The Freedom Road Socialist Organization (FRSO) was founded in 1985 through the mergers of Maoist and Marxist–Leninist organizations active near the end of the New Communist Movement. The FRSO grew out of an initial merger of the Proletarian Unity League and the Revolutionary Workers Headquarters. Some years later, the Organization for Revolutionary Unity and the Amilcar Cabral/Paul Robeson Collective merged into the FRSO.

In 1999, the FRSO split into two organizations, both of which retain the FRSO name to this day. The split primarily concerned the organization’s continued adherence to Marxism–Leninism, with one side of the FRSO upholding Marxism–Leninism and the other side preferring to pursue a strategy of regrouping and rebuilding the Left in the United States. These organizations are commonly identified through their publications, which are Fight Back! News and Freedom Road, and their websites, (frso.org) and (freedomroad.org), respectively.

In 2010, members of the FRSO (frso.org) and other anti-war and international solidarity activists were raided by the FBI. Secret documents left by the FBI revealed that agents planned to question activists about their involvement in the FRSO (frso.org) and their international solidarity work related to Colombia and Palestine. The FRSO (frso.org) works in the Committee to Stop FBI Repression.

Both FRSO groups continue to uphold the right of national self-determination for African-Americans and Chicanos. The FRSO (frso.org) works in the labor movement, the student movement, and the oppressed nationalities movement.

The Party for Socialism and Liberation was formed in 2004 as a result of a split in the Workers World Party. The San Francisco, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. branches left almost in their entirety and the party has grown significantly since then.[citation needed] The new party took control of the Worker’s World Party front organization Act Now to Stop War and End Racism (A.N.S.W.E.R.) at the time of the split.

Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, A.N.S.W.E.R. organized the „Seize BP“ campaign, which organized demonstrations calling for the U.S. federal government to seize BP’s assets and place them in trust to pay for damages.

The Progressive Labor Party (PL) was formed as the Progressive Labor Movement in 1962 by a group of former members of the Communist Party USA, most of whom had quit or been expelled for supporting China in the Sino-Soviet split. To them, the Soviet Union was imperialist. They competed with the CP and SWP for influence in the anti-war movement and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), forming the May 2 Movement as its anti-war front organization. Its major publications are Progressive Labor and the Marxist–Leninist Quarterly. They later abandoned Maoism, refusing to follow the line of any foreign country and formed the front group, the International Committee Against Racism (InCAR), in 1973. Much of their activity included violent confrontations against far right groups, such as Nazis and Klansmen. While membership in 1978 was about 1,500, by 1996 it had fallen below 500.

Formed in 1969 as the Bay Area Revolutionary Union (BARU), the Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP) had almost one thousand members in twenty-five states by 1975. Its main founder and long time leader, Bob Avakian, a Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) organizer had fought off attempts for control of the SDS by the Progressive Labor Party. The party has been unwaveringly Maoist. Working through the U.S.-Chinese People’s Friendship Association, the party arranged for visits by Americans to China. Their newspaper, Revolutionary Worker has featured articles supportive of Albania and North Korea, while the party, unusually for the Left, has been hostile to school busing, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), and gay rights. The party fell out of favour with the Chinese government after the death of Mao Zedong, partly because of the personality cult of the RCP leader. By the mid-1990s the party numbered fewer than 500 members.

The Workers World Party (WWP) was formed in 1958 by fewer than one hundred people who left the Socialist Workers Party after the SWP supported socialists in New York State elections. Their publication is Workers World. The party’s position has developed from Trotskyism to independent Marxism–Leninism, supporting all Marxist states. They have been active in organizing protests against far right groups. They were also notable for being the main US supporter of the former Ethiopian communist government. In the 1990s their membership was estimated at about 200.

Their front group, Act Now to Stop War and End Racism (A.N.S.W.E.R.) organized the early protests against the war in Iraq, which brought hundreds of thousands of protesters to Washington, D.C. before the war had even begun. However following a split in the party in 2004, some members left to form the Party for Socialism and Liberation, taking leadership of A.N.S.W.E.R. with them. The Workers World Party then formed the Troops Out Now Coalition.

Many US Trotskyist parties and organizations exist that advocate communism. These groups are distinct from Marxist–Leninist groups in that they generally adhere to the theory and writings of Leon Trotsky. Many owe their organizational heritage to the Socialist Workers Party, which emerged as a split-off from the CP.

The Freedom Socialist Party began in 1966 as the Seattle branch of the Socialist Workers Party that had split from the party and joined with others who had not belonged to the SWP. They differed with the SWP on the role of African Americans, whom they saw as being the future vanguard of the revolution, and of women, emphasizing their rights, which they called „socialist feminism“. Clara Fraser came to lead the party and was to form the group Radical Women.

Socialist Action was formed in 1983 by members, almost all of whom had been expelled from the Socialist Workers Party. Its members remained loyal to Trotskyist principles, including „permanent revolution“, that they claimed the SWP had abandoned. Strongly critical of authoritarian regimes, including the Soviet Union and Iran, it championed socialist revolution in third world countries. It was an active participant in the Cleveland Emergency National Conference in September 1984, set up to challenge American policy in Central America, and played a major role in organizing demonstrations against American action against the Sandanista rebels in Nicaragua .

Although Socialist Alternative has sometimes pursued a democratic socialist strategy, most notably in Seattle where Kshama Sawant was elected to the Seattle City Council as an openly socialist candidate in 2013., it identifies as a Trotskyist political organization. Socialist Alternative is the U.S. affiliate of the Committee for a Workers‘ International, which is a London-based international of Trotskyist political parties.

With fewer than one thousand members in 1996, the Socialist Worker’s Party (SWP) was the second largest Marxist–Leninist party in the United States. Formed by supporters of Leon Trotsky, they believed that the Soviet Union and other Communist states remained „worker’s states“ and should be defended against reactionary forces, although their leadership had sold out the workers. They became members of the Trotskyist Fourth International. Their publications include The Militant and a theoretical journal, the International Socialist Review. Two groups that broke with the SWP in the 1960s were the Spartacist League and the Workers League. The SWP has been involved in numerous violent scuffles. In 1970 the party successfully sued the FBI for COINTELPRO, where the FBI opened and copied mail, planted informants, wiretapped members‘ homes, bugged conventions, and broke into party offices. The party fields candidates for President of the United States.

Solidarity is a socialist organization associated with the journal Against the Current. Solidarity is an organizational descendant of International Socialists, a Trotskyist organization based on the proposition that the Soviet Union was not a „degenerate workers‘ state“ (as in orthodox Trotskyism) but rather „bureaucratic collectivism“, a new and especially repressive class society.

The Spartacist League was formed in 1966 by members of the Socialist Workers Party who had been expelled two years earlier after accusing the SWP of adopting „petty bourgeois ideology“. Beginning with a membership of around 75, their numbers dropped to 40 by 1969 although they grew to several hundred in the early 1970s, with Maoists disillusioned with China’s new foreign policy joining the group.

The League saw the Soviet Union as a „deformed workers‘ state“, and supported it over some policies. It is committed to Trotskyist „permanent revolution“, rejecting Mao’s peasant guerilla warfare model. The group’s publication is Workers Vanguard. Much of the group’s activity has involved stopping Ku Klux Klan and Nazi rallies.

The Workers International League is an American Trotskyist organization formed in 2001. The WIL is inspired by the theories of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky as well as British Trotskyist Ted Grant and publishes a regular newspaper called Socialist Appeal. The organization argues that trade unions in the United States must break from the Democratic Party and shift their resources towards establishing a mass party of labor.

The Socialist Party of America was founded in 1901. Eugene Debs ran as the party’s presidential candidate five times and received 6% of the popular vote in 1912. The party suffered political repression during World War I due to its pacifist stance and broke into factions over whether or not to support the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and whether or not to join the Comintern. The Socialist Party was re-formed in the mid-1920s but stopped running candidates after 1956, having been undercut by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and the resulting leftward movement of the Democratic Party to its right, and by the Communist Party on its left. In the early 1970s the party split into tiny factions.

After 1960 the Socialist Party also functioned „as an educational organization“. Members of the Debs–Thomas Socialist Party helped to develop leaders of social-movement organizations, including the civil-rights movement and the New Left. Similarly, contemporary social-democratic and democratic-socialist organizations are known because of their members‘ activities in other organizations.

The Socialist Party of America changed its name to Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA) in 1972. In electoral politics, SDUSA’s National Co-Chairman Bayard Rustin stated that its goal was to transform the Democratic Party into a social-democratic party. SDUSA sponsored a conferences that featured discussions and debates over proposed resolutions, some of which were adopted as organizational statements. For these conferences, SDUSA invited a range of academic, political, and labor-union leaders. These meetings also functioned as reunions for political activists and intellectuals, some of whom worked together for decades.

Many SDUSA members served as organizational leaders, especially in labor unions. Rustin served as President of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, and was succeeded by Norman Hill. Tom Kahn served as Director of International Affairs for the AFL–CIO. Sandra Feldman served as President of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). Rachelle Horowitz served as Political Director for the AFT and serves on the board for the National Democratic Institute. Other members of SDUSA specialized in international politics. Penn Kemble served as the Acting Director of the U.S. Information Agency in the Presidency of Bill Clinton. After having served as the U.S. Representative to the U.N.’s Committee on human rights during the first Reagan Administration, Carl Gershman has served as the President of the National Endowment for Democracy.

Michael Harrington resigned from Social Democrats, USA early in 1973. He rejected the SDUSA (majority Socialist Party) position on the Vietnam War, which demanded an end to bombings and a negotiated peace settlement. Harrington called rather for an immediate cease fire and immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. Even before the December 1972 convention, Michael Harrington had resigned as an Honorary Chairperson of the Socialist Party. In the early spring of 1973, he resigned his membership in SDUSA. That same year, Harrington and his supporters formed the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC). At its start, DSOC had 840 members, of which 2 percent served on its national board; approximately 200 had been members of Social Democrats, USA or its predecessors whose membership was then 1,800, according to a 1973 profile of Harrington.

DSOC became a member of the Socialist International. DSOC supported progressive Democrats, including DSOC member Congressman Ron Dellums, and worked to help network activists in the Democratic Party and in labor unions. With roughly six thousand members, it is the largest contemporary democratic-socialist or social-democratic organization in the United States.

In 1982 DSOC established the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) upon merging with the New American Movement, an organization of democratic socialists mostly from the New Left. Its high-profile members included Congressman Major Owens and William Winpisinger, President of the International Association of Machinists.

In the Socialist Party before 1973, members of the Debs Caucus opposed endorsing or otherwise supporting Democratic Party candidates. They began working outside the Socialist Party with antiwar groups such as the Students for a Democratic Society. Some locals voted to disaffiliate with SDUSA and more members resigned; they re-organized as the Socialist Party USA (SPUSA), while continuing to operate the old Debs Caucus paper, the Socialist Tribune, later renamed The Socialist. The SPUSA continues to run local and national candidates, recently including Dan La Botz‘ 2010 campaign for US Senate in Ohio that won over 25,000 votes and Pat Noble’s successful election onto the Red Bank Regional High School Board of Education in 2012 and subsequent re-election in 2015. The SPUSA has run or endorsed a presidential ticket in every election since its founding, most recently nominating former SPUSA co-chair Mimi Soltysik and labor activist Angela Walker in the 2016 presidential election.

Anarchism in the United States was originally individualistic and free-thinking, as typified by the work of Henry David Thoreau, but was overshadowed by a mass, cosmopolitan, anti-hierarchical, working class movement between the 1880s and 1940s, whose members were mostly recent immigrants. The anarchist movement achieved notoriety due to violent clashes with police and assassinations, but most anarchist activity took place in the realm of agitation and labor organizing among immigrant workers, with the exception of the Industrial Workers of the World, whose members were mostly native-born Americans.

The Green Party of the United States is a left of center party whose platform emphasizes environmentalism, non-hierarchical participatory democracy, social justice, respect for diversity, peace, and nonviolence. The Greens/Green Party USA is a much smaller group focusing on education and local, grassroots organizing.

In the 2000 presidential election, Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke received 2,882,000 votes or 2.74% of the popular vote.

There was a faction within the Greens, the „Left Green Network“, although they claimed to support the values of the U.S. Revolution and opposed state socialism, and in Extremism in America they are compared to the right-wing group Posse Comitatis. In „Is the Left-Green Network Really Green?“, Lorna Salzman, the 2004 presidential candidate of the Greens, explains that the Greens are not left-wing. She writes, „At the risk of being accused of „Left-baiting,“ it seems that the LGN is „Left“ not because its values or even main objectives are strikingly different from Green movement values and objectives, but because, like the traditional Left and Marxists, it persists in promoting an a priori political world-view that can then be applied across the board to all extant societal problems.“

Many communes and egalitarian communities have existed in the United States as a sub-category of the broader intentional community movement, some of which were based on utopian socialist ideals.

Clara Harris – Verzweifelte Rache

Clara Harris – Verzweifelte Rache (Originaltitel: Suburban Madness) ist ein US-amerikanisches Filmdrama aus dem Jahr 2004. Regie führte Robert Dornhelm, das Drehbuch schrieb Kimberlee Reed anhand eines Medienberichtes von Skip Hollandsworth.

Die Handlung wird aus der Perspektive der in Houston ansässigen Privatermittlerin Bobbi Bacha erzählt, die vor Gericht über die Hintergründe einer vor sechs Monaten verübten Tat aussagt. Währenddessen plant Bachas Tochter die Hochzeit.

Die in Texas lebende Zahnärztin Clara Harris ist mit David verheiratet, der den gleichen Beruf ausübt. Beide haben Kinder aus früheren Beziehungen. David stellt in der Praxis eine geschiedene Frau ein, mit der er eine Affäre hat. Clara beauftragt Bacha mit Ermittlungen. Sie überfährt eines Tages mit ihrem Auto mehrmals David, der Kopfverletzungen erleidet und daraufhin stirbt. Harris wird des Mordes bezichtigt.

David Nusair schrieb in Reel Film Reviews, die Handlung konzentriere sich auf der Figur von Bobbi Bacha; dieser Strang der Handlung sei „äußerst melodramatisch“ und wecke kaum Interesse. Die „talentierte“ Sela Ward habe Besseres verdient.

Die Handlung beruht auf wahren Ereignissen. Der Film wurde in Toronto und in Thornhill (Ontario) gedreht.

Kilnave Cross

Das Kilnave Cross (Kreuz) steht in Kilnave, westlich der Kirchenruine von Kilnave, auf der Halbinsel Ardnave, 4,5 km nördlich von Gruinart und etwa 100 m westlich des Meeresarmes Loch Gruinart, auf der schottischen Insel Islay, die zu den Inneren Hebriden und zur Unitary Authority Argyll and Bute gehört. Das Kreuz und die Kapelle sind im nationalen Denkmalregister in der Kategorie B gelistet.

Das stark verwitterte frühchristliche, ringlose Kreuz mit den beschädigten Enden stammt wahrscheinlich aus dem 5. Jahrhundert. Historic Scotland schätzt die Entstehung dagegen auf das 12. Jahrhundert.

Es besteht aus einer dünnen Platte aus der nur lokal verbreiteten Felsart „Torridonian“. Einige Merkmale verbinden das 2,63 m hohe Kreuz mit den ursprünglich 1,04 m langen Armen mit der Tradition von Iona. Zwei gerillte Platten des ursprünglichen Sockels sind noch vorhanden. Sie gehören zu einer Anordnung aus vier aufrechten Platten, die einen Kasten bilden, der als Schutz für das Kreuz fungiert.

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